Royal and its tablets , it would do better to paste (to the… front!, and replace r by i again a way silly to force people to buy vehicles unconsciously « own », says that will be produce by, which I give you Emile(Sorry, »COLUCHE »it’sa french’s joke,it’s means » je vous le donne en mille) )
HEULIEZ(okay, this is French but who will be able to buy, certainly not the worker from HEULIEZ , go break you with your mentality fascist, Masonic death me, the node, P-T-N, done for more than 40 years that, you rot life, break us the balls, work a little band of slackers, parasites, if you are in the shit) , it is due to you
The control TECHNIQUE of BRUSSEL, every year, but of course and will still get full pockets,brussel, junker, schul, tusk, you puez, go to the USA, if I’m there, and go get enc… the, your organization is illegal, you know, your my 2 federalism, in always ran, you have nothing to fuck in Europe I would say especially because .the Queen Elizabeth II has Germanic origins
DAESH, and the other asshole from be saying, Geologist, that I saw on BFM, I look from time to time and less, they lie still even, and, it make me laugh much less, but, watching more authenticated, this Israeli chain, but French, but Israeli, but French, can continue long, like this, in short, when we listen to him It feels like in Tel AVIV, I return to this asshole finished at PALMYRA, but believes it will happen for him, once, he has said, what they wanted hear REFLEUCHISSEMENT Christine, I could take another example Peñón: « MICHEL » they go well, him, show, let it go get Assfucked, he wanted can be Can be , that we do nothing to his family, or promised to leave, or to start his own, or other, that it has never, on their, supposedly » word ‘ , Now, they put guards armed to the churches, GAGs!, or how the anachronism is at its worst I’ll be them, I me emprisonnerais myself, and I’d throw the key, very, very far the key, do not leave me the chance to get away, « Where », I’ll want to escape, you never know, I might allow me to get away, and even think Certainly, make a thing, a thing, and advocate its opposite, it is very strong, and also and above all very, very con, this, is to show you the level of intelligence, or bullshit, it depends which side, it moves, we must even, after a serious accident, which eats cognitive functions, and, neurons, a person normally constituted, does not respond as that, and it is them, DAESH, finally, QATAR, who want to show the way to the world GAGs, it does not surprise me even, really, too, too, too, too much and too loudly, is QATARIS, I could ever match them.
The international monetary fund (IFM) is:
a public institution created with funds provided by the taxpayers of the world. It is important to remember because it does not directly relate to two citizens who fund or those it affects life. On the contrary, it falls within the ministries of finance and central banks of the Governments of the world. 1
This authoritarian declaration comes from Joseph Stiglitz, who served for seven years as president of the Council of economic advisers to President Clinton and Chief Economist for the World Bank.
Stiglitz is a globalist ordinary, but even honest enough to have become disillusioned with the practices of bribery of the IMF and the World Bank.
Her first-hand witness is very insightful:
International bureaucrats – symbols without a face of the world economic order – are attacked everywhere. Formerly meetings without incident of obscure technocrats discussing mundane subjects such as concessional loans and trade quotas have now become the theatre of street battles which raged and huge demonstrations…
Virtually every major meeting of the world Organization of trade, the World Bank and the Monetary Fund International is now the scene of conflict and unrest. 2
Why is – an organization that hates people like IMF? This report will be hopefully enlighten us on the subject.
Beginnings of the MFI
According to its own documentation, the International Monetary Fund (IMF) has been,
« established to promote international monetary cooperation, exchange stability and exchange rate regime ordered; to foster economic growth and high levels of employment; and to provide temporary financial assistance to countries to help ease payments balance adjustment. »
This innocuous description hardly describe the critical functions that the IMF provides to the globalization process. Indeed, the IMF is one of the main agents of change in the global economy and global governance.
In fact, the IMF was created in December 1945 when the 29 first nations signed its articles of Associationand started operations on 1 March 1947. (Note: there are now 184 Member countries.)
Permission for the IMF came a few months earlier at the famous Bretton Woods Conférence of July 1944.
In the wake of the second world war, the Bretton Woods institutions has established a system of rules and procedures, as well as institutions to enforce, which asked member countries to adopt a monetary policy that has been set on the basis of gold. Although, the Bretton Woods system collapsed in 1971 after President Nixon suspended the convertibility of the dollar into gold, created institutions in 1944 has continued without interruption.
While any country can become a member of the IMF, the accession is remarkable. When application for membership is submitted to the Board of Directors of the IMF, a « membership resolution’ to the Council of Governors that covers its quota, subscription and voting rights.
If it is approved by the Governing Council, the applicant must amend its own laws to allow signing Completo the IMF articles of agreement and fulfil its obligations required of members. In other words, the Member subject to certain part of its legal sovereignty to the IMF. This paves the way for the IMF to play an active role in the Affairs of the Member countries.
The IMF is considered by some as a global organization, but it is worth noting that the United States has 18.25% of the votes on the IMF Board, is three times more than any other Member. In addition, it is based in Washington, DC .
Founders of the MFI: Harry Dexter White and John Maynard Keynes
The principal architects of the Bretton Wood s systemand therefore the IMF, were Harry Dexter White and John Maynard Keynes.
Keynes was a french economist who has had a huge impact on global economic thinking despite the fact that many of his economic theories were completely discredited. During the second world war, it had requested the dissolution of the Bank for international settlements because of its domination by Nazi agents. After World War II however, dissolution at the bis actually mandated by the Congress, argued against dissolution pending the creation of the IMF and World Bank. His argument was often misused justification and the latter « if we close too early, the global financial system will collapse. »
Keynes globalist instinct led him to call for a global currency, called Bancor, which would be managed by a global Central Bank. This idea is actually not.
Harry Dexter White was also regarded as a brilliant economist and has been appointed as Deputy from 1942 to Henry Morgenthau, Secretary to the Treasury. I have stayed more reliable assistant to Morgenthau completo throughout his mandate and argued against the details of the Bank for international settlements. Like Morgenthau and most of all Americans, White was strongly anti-Nazi. White, however, was not pro-American. 3
On October 16, 1950, memo from the FBI identified white as a Soviet spy whose code name was lawyer.
After the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991, the formerly secret documents intelligence were made public and shone new light on the case. White was not just a spy among US spies identified one fifty, it was probably the top spy of the page for the USSR to the United States.
In 1999, the Hoover Digest wrote:
In their new book Venona: decoding Soviet espionage in America, Harvey Klehr and John Haynes argued that some fifty Americans known to have spied on Stalin (many others have never been identified), Harry Dexter White was probably the most important agent.
The Venona intercepts revealed that the Conference of 1945 at San Francisco, founder of the United Nations, White met with the Soviet KGB officer and informed him of the United States position on a number of issues of bargaining. (Code name for the KGB completo White was at various times ‘lawyer’, ‘Richard’ and ‘Reed. »)
Another message of the KGB noted white had to resign from his high and incoming cash position in the private sector, because I needed more revenue to pay for tuition for his daughter. White was considered if important to the Kremlin that its managers offered to pay tuition, so white could remain at the Treasury. 4
White had lived beyond 1946, there probably would have prosecuted for high treason against the United States, sentencing which is running.
Such is the moral fibre and intellectual credentials of the creators of the IMF:
· We want English economist with a folded ideologue much global
· the other to corrupt and high official in the U.S. Government who was a Soviet spy Albums
Trying to figure out where these two was really in the eyes of the soul global elite has twists and turns more than a story of mystery of Sherlock Holmes.
It is more easily seen by the end result – the success of the creation of the IMF and the World Bank, which were warmly approved by the likes of J.P. Morgan and Chase Bank, among other international bankers.
Positioning: IMF vs. the World Bank and the bis
It is to the triad of monetary authorities who rule the global operations of money:
· the IMF
· the World Bank
· the Bank for international settlements
Although they work very closely together, it is necessary to see what part of each cheek in the process of globalization.
The International Monetary Fund (IMF) and the World Bank interact that with Governments so that the BIS only interacts with other central banks. The IMF’s loans to national Governments and often these countries are in a sort of budgetary or monetary crisis.
In addition, the IMF raises funds by receiving contributions from ‘quota’ of its 184 Member countries. Even if Member countries can borrow money to make their quota contributions, it is, in reality, all the money from the taxpayer. 5
The World Bank lends money to Governments and also some 184 Member countries. Within the World Bank are two separate entities:
· the International Bank for Reconstruction and development (IBRD)
· the International Development Association (IDA)
http://Web.worldbank.org/WBSITE/external/EXTABOUTUS/IDA/0, menuPK:83991 ~ pagePK:118644 ~ piPK:51236156 ~ theSitePK:73154, 00.html
The IBRD focuses on income intermediary and the creditworthy poor countries, while IDA focuses on the poorest nations.
The World Bank is self-sufficient for internal operations, borrow money for direct loans to banks and by floating bond issues and then lend this money through IBRD and IDA to the troubled countries. 6
The bis, the Central Bank to other central banks, facilitates the movement of money. They are known for issuing « loans » from central banks in countries where the IMF or the World Bank money is itself are engaged, but have not yet been delivered. These loans are then reimbursed by the respective Governments when they receive the funds promised by the IMF or the World Bank. 7
The IMF has become known as the « lender of last resort. When a country begins to crumble due to problems with trade deficits or excessive indebtedness, the IMF can intervene and it out of the mess. If the country was a patient in a hospital, the treatment would include transfusion and other support measures of life to maintain the patient in life just – full recovery isn’t really in sight, or it never happened.
It must be remembered that rescue operations would not be necessary if it were not for central banks, international banks, the IMF and the World Bank, these countries to leaders of the debts that they may never repay in the first place.
The objective and the Structure of the IMF
According to the booklet of the MFI, A global Institution: role of the IMF at a glance,
The IMF is the pivot of the international monetary system, the system of international payments and the exchange rates between the national currencies which allows companies to take place between the countries.
It aims to prevent crises in the system by encouraging countries to adopt sound economic policies; It is also – as its name suggests, a fund that can be used by members in need of temporary funding for balance of payments problems.
The IMF works to global prosperity by promoting
· the balanced development of the world trade
· stability of exchange rates
· avoid competitive devaluations
· orderly correction of balance of payments problems
Statutory purposes of the IMF including promote balanced development of world trade, the stability of exchange rates, avoid competitive devaluations and the orderly correction of the problems of balance of payments of the country. 8
Although the IMF has changed significantly over the years, their current literature indicates very clearly that the statutory purposes of the IMF today are the same as when they were formulated in 1944:
I have. Promoting international monetary cooperation through a permanent institution which provides the mechanism for consultation and collaboration on international monetary problems.
II. to facilitate the expansion and balanced growth of international trade and thus contribute to the promotion and maintenance of high levels of real income and employment and to the development of the productive resources of all members as main objectives of economic policy.
III. to promote exchange stability, to maintain the exchange arrangements ordered between members and to avoid competitive exchange depreciation.
IV. to help putting in place of a multilateral system of payments for current transactions between members and the elimination of exchange restrictions that prevent the growth of world trade.
c. to give confidence to members by making the general resources of the Fund temporarily available to them adequate safeguards, thus providing them with the opportunity to correct the imbalances in the balance of payments without resorting to measures destructive of national or international prosperity.
VI. in accordance with the above, to shorten the duration and reduce the degree of imbalance in the balance of international payments of members.8
As noble as it may seem, can interpret the meaning of match his actions.
For example, « consultation and collaboration »means often »we will enforce our policies on your country »and »sufficient guarantees » to mean the « guarantee and concessions, we require in Exchange for our loans. ».
The IMF has been compared to international credit union, where members who contribute reserves have the possibility of borrowing that the need may arise. The IMF is more able to collect funds by borrowing member countries or private markets. The IMF says have not raised funds from private for the moment markets.
This report will examine four aspects of the operations of the IMF:
· currency and monetary roles
· moral hazard
· rescue during the monetary crisis
Currency monetary roles / gold
Two years before the collapse of the Bretton Woods system , the IMF created a reserve mechanism called the Special drawing rights , or SDRs.
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The SDR is not a currency, nor is this a responsibility of the IMF, it is above all a potential claim on the freely usable currencies. Freely usable currencies, as determined by the IMF, are the U.S. dollar, euro, Japanese yen and British pound. 9
Since the value of the variation of component relative to the other currencies, the value of the SDR changes from each component. As of December 29, 2005, RDS has been estimated at $1,4291. The SDR interest rate was pegged at 3.03%.
There should be no error in the minds of the readers that the IMF sees itself as the « controller of the currency » for all countries that have hooked a ride on express globalization.
According to an official publication,.
The IMF is therefore concerned not only with the problems of individual countries, but also with the functioning of the international monetary system as a whole. Its activities aim to promote policies and strategies through which its members work together to ensure a stable global financial system and sustainable economic growth.
The IMF provides a forum for international monetary cooperation and therefore for an orderly evolution of the system, and submit it to the extent of International Monetary Affairs to the Covenant of law, moral suasion and understandings. 10
The IMF is working closely with the Bank for international settlements in the smooth promotion of the foreign exchange markets, exchange rate, monetary policy, etc.
The bis, the Central Bank of central banks, most probably said the IMF what to do rather than the reverse. This notion is reinforced by the fact that on 10 March 2003, the bis adopted the DTS as his official reserve asset, abandoning the Swiss franc gold 1930 altogether.
This action removed any restraint of the creation of paper money in the world. In other words, gold does not save any national currency, leaving the central banks to field wide open to create money as they are the only hear. Do not forget, that almost all central banks in the world are private – or jointly-controlled entities with an exclusive franchise to arrange loans for their respective host countries.
This is not to say that gold has no current role or future international money. Under Bretton Woods, gold was the assets of the median and original subscribers have contributed large amounts of gold bullion. Gold was completely abandoned in 1971, but the IMF continues to own and hold gold in the present: 103.4 million ounces (3 217 tonnes) of which the current market value of about $45 billion. This is no small quantity of gold!
The US Treasury claims to have 261.5 million ounces of gold, but it has never been an official audit physical Fort Knox and other directories to back up this claim. By comparison, Britain claims to have 228 million ounces of gold.
The bis, the IMF and the major central banks (including the New York federal reserve Bank ( and the Bank of England) have collectively and methodically sold parts of their gold stocks while affirming that « gold is dead.
This manipulation has well-maintained to suppress the price of gold since the beginning of the 1970s. Antony Sutton1979 book, The War on gold, dealt with definitively on this issue. More recently, the Gold anti-trust Action Committee (GATA) Group was founded in 1999 with essentially the same argument: Gold has been manipulated unfairly.
Suffice it to say that if so many organizations have manejaba keep « Silver gold » off of the minds of the public, then gold is not dead, but only temporarily on the shelf.
When fiat currencies have been drained dry by the global cartel, or probably will be reduced by the same people who told us that it was a matter of dead forever.
It is a technical legal term with a specific meaning, but it is easily understandable. Moral hazard is the term given to an increased risk of immoral behaviour, resulting in a negative result (the « risk »), because people who have increased the potential for risk in the first place will suffer no consequence or benefit from them.
While the IMF is riddled with specific instances of moral hazard, its very existence is a moral hazard.
The eminent economist Hans f. Sennholz (Grove City College) summarizes the operations of the IMF in this way:
In fact, the IMF encouraged bankers and investors to take imprudent risks providing funds from the taxpayer to bail out them. He encouraged Governments corrupt to perch and political bust coming to their rescue when they run out of dollar reserves. 11
The money shuffle goes like this: the World Bank and bis develop markets for credit of enticing Governments to borrow money.
They (and the banks private along the side of them) are encouraged to make loans at risk because they know that MFIS is ready to save the country with failed loans – moral hazard. As usury interest accumulates and finally threatens the entire financial stability of the affected country, the IMF intervenes to « bail out » with the operation.
Defaulted loans are replaced or restructured (provided taxpayer) with loans from the IMF. Additional money is loaned to repay the back interest and to allow expansion of the economy. Ultimately, the desperate country is still further in debt and is now faced with all kinds of conditions and additional restrictions.
In addition, under the aegis of bogus ‘poverty reduction’, citizens are invariably left worse off than at the beginning.
It is also a technical term that has a special meaning: the conditionality is a condition with a loan or a debt relief by the IMF or the World Bank. Conditionalities are generally non-financial in nature, as a country to privatize or to deregulate services key audiences.
Conditionalities are most important to the bosom of the so-called structural adjustment programmes (SAP) created by the IMF. Of the United Nations are required to implement or promise to implement conditionalities attached prior to the approval of the loan.
The impact of the conditionalities are remarkable. The Globalist think tank Foreign Policy in Focus published bailout the IMF and global financial flows by Dr. David Felix in 1998.
The introduction of the report makes these key points:
· The IMF has transformed into an instrument to exclude third-world open to foreign capital and debt collection markets.
· This transformation, violates the Charter of the MFI in spirit and in substance and increased costs for countries requesting financial assistance from the IMF.
· Operational crisis by the IMF comes from resistance to its policy of increasing requirements outbreak of financial costs of debtor and accumulating evidence of the failure of the IMF strategy. 12
The general public has not seen these « internal criticism » of the IMF. If a foreigner were to make the same criticism, I would be ostracized for belonging to the radical fringe.
Thus, the conditionalities are instruments to force the opening of the markets in the countries of the third world and collection by default debts owed by public and private organizations. The result of accumulation of conditionalities increases resistance to such requirements, bordering on hatred in many countries. Those who can afford it least are faced with glider costs, additional debt and reduced national sovereignty.
Perhaps the official report on this subject was produced in 2002 by Axel Dreher of Hamburg Institute of International Economics , entitled the development and implementation of the IMF and Bank global compliance.
Dreher said that it there was no consideration of conditionality during the creation of the IMF, but rather, they were gradually added in increasing numbers, as in years past, and especially by American banking interests. 13
Conditionalities are arbitrary, non-regulated and imposed to varying degrees on different countries according to the whims of the negotiators. Recipient countries have little or no, bargaining power.
Review August has observed on several occasions that, 1973, with the creation of the Trilateral Commission , was a year hinge in the stampede to globalization. It is not surprising then that conditionalities has become standard practice in 1974 with the introduction of the Extended Fund Facility (EFF). 14
EFF established lines of credit, or « credit tranches, » which could be drawn on as required by a troubled country, thus creating other moral hazards as well.
Dreher also emphasizes close coordination with the World Bank:
Reforms under IMF programs were mainly designed by economists of the World Bank. Conditionality of funding was often in favour of the measures contained in the operations of public enterprise reform supported by the Bank. The selection of public enterprises are reformed and the modalities and the calendar has been developed by the Bank as well. 15
Thus, we see that the IMF is not only in the application of conditionality and in some cases, it is ostensibly led by the World Bank.
Meticulous research Completo Dreher have discovered another interesting statistic: the privatization of the Bank condition most common is – included in 35 percent of the analyzed programs! 16
International bankers have always had disdain for the operations to be executed by Governments instead by private property or banking professionals. Thus, they used the IMF and the World Bank to force the privatization of what remains in government hands in the third world.
If all this were not enough troubling, Dreher informs us that there are direct links between the conditionalities imposed and various private banks that work in conjunction with the IMF and the World Bank:
Given that private creditors were willing to pay more that if the IMF programmes have been in force, leverage of the funds has been improved for the resolution of crises sometimes because it takes more money that can be provided by international financial institutions, the IMF and World Bank depend on these private creditors who should therefore be able to push for that the conditions that are in their interest. 17
With the IMF, the World Bank and other international banks, forcing Governments to run their country in ways do not of their choice, with the United States and considered to be the primary determinant of these organizations, it is not surprising that the third world musters such intense hatred for the United States and selfish globalization it exports as far as possible.
The process of globalization is the most anti-democratic and totally ineffective to accomplish his noble stated objective of poverty reduction.
It should be clearly apparent by now that the « can opener » for globalization unfold is the power of money. Money borrowed and enslaves the borrower and puts it at the mercy of the lender.
When President Bill Clinton finally recognized the error of his ways during its history with Monica Lewinski, I said that it was the absolutely worst reasons:
« Because I could. »
Why these global financial organizations take such advantage of those they systematically put in danger?
Because they can!
The Brazil IMF bailout
The 1998 the Brazil currency crisis was caused by the inability of the country to pay excessive accumulated interest on loans during a prolonged period of time. These loans granted by banks such as Citigroup, J.P. Morgan Chase and FleetBoston, and they stood to lose an enormous amount of money.
The IMF, the World Bank and the United States, bailed out Brazil with a package of $41.5 billion registered Brazil, its currency and, not either says in passing, some private banks.
Congressman Bernard Sanders (I – VT), ranking member of the Subcommittee on trade and international monetary policy denounced on this money laundering operation.
Sander completo any release of the Congress press is worth reading:
The IMF for the Brazil bailout is manna to banks, disaster for us taxpayers said Sanders
-15 August – BURLINGTON (VERMONT), Member of the Congress Bernard Sanders (I – VT), ranking member of the Subcommittee on trade and international monetary policy today called for immediately investigated by the Congress of the recent bailout Fund International Monetary (IMF) of $30 billion of the Brazil.
Sanders, who strongly opposed the rescue plan and it considers social welfare, wants Congress to know why American taxpayers are invited to provide billions of dollars to the Brazil and how much of this money will be sent to U.S. banks such as Citigroup, FleetBoston and J.P. Morgan Chase. These banks have about $25.6 billion in lending to Brazilian borrowers. American taxpayers are currently funding the IMF through a line of credit of $37 billion.
« At a time where we have a national debt of $6 trillion, a growing federal deficit and an increasing number of unmet social needs for our veterans, the elderly and children, it is unacceptable that billions of dollars of U.S. taxpayers are sent to the IMF bailout Brazil. »
« This money will not much help the poor of this country. » The real winners in this situation are the big, profitable US banks such as Citigroup that have made billions of dollars in risky to the Brazil investments and now want to make sure that their investments are covered. This rescue plan constitutes an unacceptable form of social welfare to be launched end. « Interestingly, these banks have made contributions of important campaign for the two political parties, » the Member of Congress said.
Sanders noted that the neoliberal policies of the IMF developed in the 1980s countries pushing free trade absolute, privatisation and slashing social safety nets have been a disaster for Latin America and has contributed to the increase in global poverty around the world.
While the countries of Latin America as the Brazil and the Argentina followed these neo-liberal is imposed by the IMF, between 1980 and 2000, the income per capita in Latin America has experienced only one tenth the growth of the previous two decades.
« The policies of the IMF during the last 20 years, advocating absolute free trade, privatization of industry, deregulation and slashing investment by the Government in the health, education and pensions were a complete failure to low-income and middle class families in the developing countries and to the United States. »
Clearly, these policies allowed only companies in their constant search for the hand of less expensive artwork and weaker environmental regulations. « Congress must work on a new global policy that protects workers, increases the level of life and improves the environment. »
The IMF’s Asia bailout
The Asian monetary crisis came to a head in 1998, and the IMF was on hand for a massive rescue plan.
Vocal critics of the IMF at this time included George p. Schultz (member of the Trilateral Commission), William e. Simon (Secretary to the Treasury under Nixon and Ford) and Walter b. Wriston (former president of Citigroup/Citibank and a member of the of Abolish the IMF?). They jointly wrote for the Hoover Institution, where Shultz is also a distinguished fellow. Council on Foreign Relations
The article says:
The bailout Asian $118 billion, which can if raise to $160 billion, is by far the largest ever undertaken by the IMF. A distant second was the 1995 Mexican rescue, which involved some $30 billion in loans, mostly from the IMF and the US Treasury. Defenders of the IMF just often the rescue plan Mexico as a success because the Mexican Government has repaid loans on schedule.
But the Mexican people has undergone a massive decline in their standard of living as a result of this crisis. As is typical when the IMF, the Government and lenders have been rescued, but not people. 18
Their scathing attack continues throughout the article and ends with,
The IMF is ineffective, unnecessary and obsolete. We are not another IMF, as Mr. ()George) Soros recommends. Once the crisis is over, we should TV that we have. 18
It is interesting that these members of base the global elite are throwing stones at their own institution.
What is outrageous is that they are completely circumventing their own personal guilt for globalisation in the car with all its bad side effects. The fact that they have succinctly describes the damage done by the IMF clearly excused their typical claim of « ignorance ». They are staged to dissolve the IMF for another more powerful Monetary Authority?
Time will tell.
Argentina -A case study of privatization
In 2001, the IMF gave the Argentina rescue plan, worth $8 billion. The main beneficiaries were European megabanks, which held about 75 percent of the country’s external debt.
The river of money flowed like this:
· IMF gives $8 billion (approximately $1.6 billion which was money from the taxes levied on the American hard work) to the Argentina
· Argentina buys US Treasury bills (U.S. gets dollars after being « monetized »)
· Argentina supply of Treasury bills to the creditor banks that accept graciously to remove their Argentine worthless bonds
Less than a decade earlier, the IMF and the World Bank supported Argentina in the largest project of privatization of water in the world. In 1993 the Aquas Argentinas have formed a consortium including the Group Suez of France (largest company deprived of water in the world) and Aquas de Barcelona of Spain to the PPWB by the Argentina. The new company covering a more populated region 10 million inhabitants.
Now, after 10 years of higher water rates, reduces the quality of the water treatment and waste water and neglected the improvement of infrastructure, the consortium is its 30-year contract, pulling out and breaking. Bitterness between Aqua and officials runs deep because of unfulfilled promises and political reaction.
In the aftermath of The Aqua Argentina is registered in the online edition of November 21, 2005, from the guardian:
More than 1 million inhabitants in rural areas of the argentine province of Santa Fe face an anxious waiting to discover if their taps will always flow or their flush toilets in the coming weeks.
Since 1995, the province has had its water supply and sewer services provided by a consortium led by the French multinational Suez. now, the giant utility wants and plans to leave within a month.
The decision, which follows the prestige collapse of other schemes of water privatization in countries including Tanzania, Puerto Rico, the Philippines and the Bolivia, has once again raised questions about the viability of the privatization of public services in developing countries.
Suez is also preparing an early departure from its formerly lucrative concession in the capital of Argentina, Buenos Aires. The agreement concluded in 1993, scored the biggest water privatization project in the world.
In both cases, the French utility ends its 30 year contract for one-third of the way through. Suez failed to get concessions to build – at least not according to the terms of its current agreements.
The French utility giant snapped up two agreements of service in the 1990s, when the Argentina is undergoing a major reform of its public sector, largely at the instigation of the World Bank and other lending institutions. 19
Aqua Argentina milking the market as he could and then simply bailed out. And why not? Income has dried up, and it is not their country!
World Statistics show that some 460 million around the world people must rely on private water corporations like Argentina Aqua, compared to only 51 million in 1990. The IMF (and the World Bank) profit the extra 400 million people with water mega-businesses in Europe and the United States, privatized contracts
Now that the cream skimming on the top of the milk has undergone, these same companies are themselves excuse party – leaving Capernaum, angry customers and Governments unable still faced with billions of dollars of debt (at their insistence) to begin the privatization in the first place.
[Note: in February 2003, CBC’s news to the Canada has produced a comprehensive report water for Profit: multinationals are how to take control of a public resource which features and segments that have been delivered through five days of broadcasting included.] 20
This report does not purport to be an exhaustive analysis of the IMF. There are several facets, examples and case studies that could be explored. Indeed, many books of critical analysis have been written on the IMF. The object of this report has been generally show how the IMF is part of globalisation as a critical member in the triad of global monetary powers: the IMF, the bis and the World Bank.
Despite calls from the same institution for the dissolution of the IMF, it continues to operate without hindrance and with virtually no accountability. This is reminiscent of the bis continued to operate even after its dissolution was officially commissioned after WWII.
For the purpose of this report, it is sufficient to conclude that…
· the two founders of the IMF, one was an outright traitor to the United States and the other was a British citizen dedicated to globalism
· the IMF, in coordination with the bis, closely control the currencies and exchange rates in the world economy
· the IMF is channeling, for taxpayers ‘ money to be used to bail out private banks who gave questionable loans to countries already struggling with too much debt
· conditionalities are often structured with the help of private banks which alongside loans from the IMF
· privatization policies accomplish exactly the opposite of what was promised
· the global elite is neither ignoring nor repented of the distress the IMF caused so many nations of the third world
· When the public heat gets too hot, the global elite simply join critics (thus escaping all blame) while creating new initiatives that allow them to move business – in other words, their business quietly!
1. Stiglitz, Globalization and its Discontents (Norton, 2002), p.12
2 ibid., p. 3
3 Ladd, memorandum of the Office of the FBI, 16 October 1950
4 Beichman, guilty of the offences charged, Hoover Digest 1999 No. 2
5 website of the IMF, http://www.imf.org
6 the World Bank website. http://www.worldbank.org
7 Baker, the Bank for international settlements: evolution and evaluation, (Quorum, 2002), pp. 141-142
8 IMF, what is the Monetary Fund International?, 2004
9 IMF, overview of the IMF as a Financial Institution, p.11
10.ibid., p. 3
11.Sennholz, IMF bailouts aggravate
12.Felix, the bailout the IMF and global financial flows, Vol. 3, no. 3, April 1998
13.Dreher, the development and the implementation of the IMF and Bank World conditionality, Hamburg Institute of International Economics
14.ibid., p. 9
15.ibid.., p. 17
16.ibid.., p. 18
17.ibid.., p. 21
18.Shultz, and. Al, who needs the IMF?, Hoover Institution public policy investigation on the IMF
19.l’ effect NET-away, The Guardian, November 21, 2005
20.CBC News, water for Profit: How multinationals take control of a public resource
Greg Palast on the maintenance and the journalist Alex Jones radio program
Social unrest are laid down by the IMF
The essence and false privatization in the world
by Greg Palast
March 4, 2002
Website of VoltaireNet
Great investigative reporter American, working for the Guardian in London and the BBC (GregPalast.com)
The IMF (International Monetary Fund) and the World Bank are the property of 51% of the Treasury of the United States.
The two desprestigiadas institutions of manipulations and their mistakes are very challenged by civil society.
Joe Stiglitz Nobel winner in economics and former head of the World Bank.
Fired for denouncing the pitfalls of these institutions.
Alex Jones: This land of raja information. Can you explain it for us and tell us what is it that makes economists?
Greg Palast: Well, I’ll tell you two things. One, I spoke to former Chief Economist Joe Stiglitz which was rejected by the World Bank. The BBC and The Guardian, I spent some time to question him. It was like scenes from mission: impossible, you know, where the type comes from the other side and asked for hours.
So, I got information ‘internal’ of what is passed to the World Bank.
In addition, other things that he has not told me, I got them from other sources. It would give me no internal documents of the Bank, but others gave me a huge stack of secret documents of the World Bank and the Monetary Fund International (see the Jean Ziegler article ).
AJ: For not committing him, someone else does…
GP: # Does not want to talk about, but I was really completely independent sources many documents…
AJ: While you got the document W199I, since the same people that we got it…
GP: And one of the things that has happened is that, in fact, I’d be in a CNN interview with the Director of the World Bank Jim Wolfensohn and he said that does not appear in CNN the never if they put me in the air. And CNN did the craziest thing in the world and took me air…
AJ: Then they now threaten to boycott total…
GP: Yes, Yes. What we found was the following: found in these documents they require essentially Nations signed « secret agreements », in which Governments committed to sell its key assets, agree to take economic measures that devastate really to the Nations involved (there is an average of 111 points of each nation to sign).
If Governments do not follow these steps is cut access to international credits. You couldn’t ask to borrow money on the international market. Can not survive without borrowing, if you are a corporation, a person or a country, without borrowing money and have little credit and…
AJ: Debt inflated themselves have created…
GP: Well, Yes, see, one of the things that has happened is that we have examples of this. I recently got the internal records of the Argentina, the Argentine secret Plan. The document is signed by Jim Wolfensohn, the President of the World Bank. Also, so you know, they are very angry with me for having obtained the documents, but did not deny the authenticity of the documents. First Yes.
At the beginning they said, « these documents do not exist ».
I showed them to the TV. And I put some on the WEB, I made copies of some…
AJ: in GregPalast.com?
GP: Yes, Gregpalast.com. Then they reversed it and said that Yes, these documents are genuine, but we will not discuss with you, and in any case we will keep you out of the air. And it is so. But they said that the documents:
Look, you take a country like Argentina, which is, you know, set the fire. They already had five presidents in five weeks, because its economy was destroyed completely…
AJ: are not six now?
GP: Yes, it’s as if he were a president a week because they can’t keep the nation in one piece. And this happened because the Argentina started at the end of the 1980s, by orders of the IMF and the World Bank, to sell all of its assets, public goods. I want to talk about things that we, or crazy would do to the United States and sell drinking water system…
AJ: Then put the people of new taxes. They create a huge Government, any statified and then pass the Government to the private sector companies, the IMF and the World Bank… When you return from the break, I want to get to the part you are talking about the four stages that describes in an elegant way, where bribe politicians billion paying in Swiss accounts to make this transfer of assets.
AJ: Is one of the largest I’ve heard, I’m sorry, please continue.
Jim Wolfensohn current Director general and
President of the World Bank having its seat in
The first letters of his surname means
«Wolf» a real predator by nature…?
GP: It is happening – and it’s just one of the cases. And besides, this is not a case either. The Buenos Aires water system sold for coins to a company called Enron. Also sold a gas pipeline, which extends between the Argentina and of Chile, to a company called Enron.
AJ: And then the globalists disarm Enron after you transfer assets to another fake company and therefore deleted tracks of vol.
GP: UD has understood. And by the way do you know why they sold the pipeline to Enron? It is because they have received a call from a man named George w. Bush in 1988.
AJ: Amazing, Mr. Stay on the dial. We spoke with Greg Palast.
AJ: We speak with Greg Palast. It is an award-winning journalist, an American who has worked for the BBC, the Guardian of London and other major media. Greg has obtained and disseminated documents that are a pump for « criminal activities » the globalists (see the article on neo-liberalism).
There’s no other Word to name. You can access inforwars.com, you can access your site on the WEB (gregpalast.com), or one of the other magnificent reports it publishes. He now has the secret documents. We have seen how they act, the IMF and the World Bank, for years.
They arrive, bribe politicians of drinking water transfer, railways, telephone companies, nationalized oil companies, gas companies. Governments give them for nothing. The globalists are bribes paid individually billion per head in Swiss bank accounts. And the plan is for the total enslavement of the entire population!
Of course, Enron, as we expect you on this radio, it’s a fake Corporation to launder money, drug money, and what you imagine.
It is very large and hard to believe. But it is the case at present. Greg Palast now extends the history around the world. He interviewed the former Chief Economist of the World Bank. Please continue Mr. Palast with all these points.
For our listeners, in short, what is the system that you expose?
GP: Are exposing that they destroy systematically by the United Nations, the Ecuador or Argentina. The problem is that some of these bad ideas are coming to the United States. In other words, the end of these countries to bleed. And the problem is that which says that it is the former Chief Economist of the World Bank. It is not a sort of second line.
On the other hand, a few months after he was fired by the World Bank, received the Nobel Prize in economics. It is therefore clear that this is not not a fool. He told me that he went to the country where they were talking about privatization and the sale of assets.
And basically they knew, knew and turned away when it was heard that the leaders of these countries and key ministers remain with hundreds of millions of dollars.
AJ: But this is not even a privatization. They just stole the people and handed to the IMF / World Bank.
GP: They have supplied is generally in monitors, like Citibank, which was very large and absorbed half of Argentine banks. We also have British Petroleum taking pipelines in Ecuador. And what they told him Enron taking drinking water networks in the world. And the problem is that they destroy these systems also.
Now you can’t get even not drinking water in Buenos Aires. And this goes beyond the flight, you can’t even turn the bobbin. It is more than a case of corruption, this is more serious that someone get rich on public spending.
AJ: And the IMF recently obtained control over the Great Lakes (N T: North of USA) they now have complete control over the water supply. Which appeared in the newspaper Chicago Tribune.
GP: Well, the problem is: the IMF and the World Bank are the property of 51% of the Treasury of the United States. So the question is: what we get for the money we put there? And it seems that we get from disasters in several countries. The Indonesia is on fire. He told me, that the head of the World Bank, Stiglitz, Economist told me that he began to wonder what was happening.
You know, everywhere we go, in every country that we get, we destroy all its economy and end upwards on fire. And he said that he made this type of questions, and why they cast the World Bank. He said they intend even social unrest. They know that when they press a country and destroy its economy, gain social unrest in the streets. And they say, it’s the social unrest of the IMF.
In other words, by having social unrest, you lose. Leaks of capital from their country and which gives the opportunity to the IMF to then require conditions more.
The IMF (International Monetary Fund) and the World Bank are the property of 51% of the Treasury of the United States. The two desprestigiadas institutions of manipulations and their mistakes are very challenged by civil society
AJ: And what makes them even more desperate. So this is really an imperial economic war for destroying the country and now they are here with Enron. They have become so greedy that they are preparing to take this country (USA)
GP: I spoke recently in California, with the principal investigators of the State of California for the Enron affair. They told me some of the games that are of these types. No one is aware of this. It is not only that some shareholders have lost their money. They have chuparon millions, billions of dollars of the public pocket in Texas and California.
AJ: Where are the assets? See, everybody says « there is no assets » that Enron was a fake Corporation, I have been informed the experts that I interviewed. They transferred all assets to other companies and banks.
GP: Well, Yes, this subject seems to be a game of cards and cheating players and gangsters. Do not forget that in the background moves money. For example, in California electricity bills have been paid, and according to investigations, they say unnecessarily receiving electricity for the sum of $ 9 billion to $ 12 billion.
And I do not know how to recover this money now.
AJ: I know they took the Governor buying electricity for $137 megawatt and time and time again to do sell to Enron for $1 per megawatt.
GP: Yes, the system had gone completely out of control, and these types knew exactly what was happening. Well, you must understand that some of the guys who designed the system in California for the deregulation of electricity, then went to work for Enron.
In fact, I am currently in London, and the British Crown have a responsibility here.
The guy who was on the Enron Review Committee was Lord Wakeham (N of t with respect to the House of Lords). And this is very special, there is a conflict of interest, whose type was not involved.
AJ: And it is at the head of NM Rothschild .
GP: It has no business in which it is not inserted. Is on the boards 50 businesses. And one of the problems is that he was the head of the Commission of the listener to consider how Enron was accounting books. And in fact, they had to pay the costs of consultation under the table.
It was in the Government of Margaret Thatcher and is that of which they allowed Enron to come to Britain and take control of power plants here. And they also took control of a water supply system in the Centre of England. To be more clear, such approved their entry and then they gave him a job in the directory. And besides being in the directory, he received a consultant contract huge costs.
So you know, this was supposed to be responsible for the review panel to see how they managed their accounts.
Mr. Wolfensohn plays the role of the generous ‘Godfather’,
distributing millions of dollars to the countries and peoples of the world.
Propaganda of the World Bank.
AJ: Well, it is also the head of the Commission’s regulation of the press.
GP: Yes, is this, that I had major problems, because it regulates.
AJ: That they also want to pass laws in England by which if you have 800 years old water, well, for example, or in some cases a 2000 years well built by the Romans in their property, they say ‘we have a water meter in the well. You do not yet have their own water.
GP: Yes and it is the Lord Wakeham. I would like to say that it is a type of Enron. It is a very special kind. You can touch, because as you say, it regulates the media. Then if ud complains against him, it prevents you from writing on this subject.
AJ: Investigate at NM Rothschild, whatever it finds. Now, we go by these four points. I mean, you got the documents. The four points of the recipe of the IMF / World Bank to lower a country and destroy the resources of people.
GP: I agree. First, you open the capital markets. In other words, you are selling their local banks to foreign banks. Then implement you what is called the « market price ».
This is how he spent in California where everything is ‘free market’ and you end up with clean water bills. Still not imagine selling water in companies of the United States of America, but imagine if a privately as Enron had its water. Then prices could skyrocket to the sky.
Then you open their borders to trade – free trade, Total. And don’t forget that Stiglitz, who was Chief Economist, ran this system, was the man of the numbers, and he told me that it was like « the opium wars ». He told me that « this is not free trade; It’s trade strength ».
It comes to the war. They destroy the economies of the countries with this.
AJ: Well, look, China has a rate of 40% on us, we have a 2% on them. This is not a free and fair trade. This forces the industry to a country that fully control the globalists .
GP: Do you know well, Wal-Mart. I wrote a story, that I do not know if you have read my book. Let me mention that I published a book, « the best democracy money can buy », on the way in which, unfortunately, America has offered for sale. « Democracy better than money can buy » released this week. But I have a story here about how Walmart has 700 factories in China.
There is almost nothing in a Wal-Mart store which come from the United States, despite all the flags hung on the wall.
AJ: Exactly, as in the novel 1984 Orwell: they have flags that say ‘Buy American’ but there’s nothing buy American. This is the double speech Orwellian.
GP: What is even worse, is that they employ a factory and on the side, make a twin plant that is inside a prison. You can imagine the conditions of these workers that produce these beautiful items for Wal-Mart. It’s really…
AJ: And if someone of the elite needs a liver, just place a phone order.
GP: (laughs) I know, is cruel. In fact, I talked to a guy, Harry Wu, who is his name. It was introduced, it was for 19 years in a Chinese prison. No one believed that its horror stories. It was introduced again in prison, took a picture with him and has taken photographs of the conditions of detention and said that the terms of the factories where Wal-Mart gets its statutes, is all…
AJ: I was threatened of you no more TV, here, Austin (Texas) when I put in the air a video of some girls 4 years, chained, leaner than the Jews in the concentration camps, dying. And I’ve been threatened, if you return to the air again once, he will be arrested…
GP: Well, you know, horrified by this material, unfortunately, gave me, and moreover Stiglitz was very brave to go out and make these statements.
Like I said, it doesn’t have me provided the documents. Documents sealed history because they said what was really happening. They said ‘sign on the dotted line to agree with 111 conditions for each nation’.
And the public knows nothing, that the public has no idea what the heck, it’s happening. All they know…
AJ: Return to the privatization. We go on these four points. This is the key. Gave them billions politicians to give all…
GP: Yes, he called (Stiglitz) «sobornizacion», which is you sell the water company and that’s worth, for ten years, say that it is a value of about $5 billion, 10% of 500 million, you can imagine how it works. I talked to a Senator from the Argentina two weeks ago (N.del T: Prabal )).
I did an interview on the camera. He said that after receiving a call from Bush in 1988 (see note) saying that he gave the pipeline in Argentina to Enron, it seemed really scary that Enron would pay one-fifth of the world for gas price and he said how it can be that you make us so ridiculous offer?
And says, not directly for Bush, but himself, a partner in the transaction:
« Well, if we only pay one-fifth of the price, which leaves a pleasant place for you and can enter into your Swiss bank account » (see article on Menem ).
And this is how it’s done.
AJ: This is the…
GP: I have the movie. This type is very conservative. He knows the Bush family. He was Minister of public works in Argentina and said yes, « I received this call. »
I asked him,
« Of Bush? ». He said yes, in November 1988.
The type called him and told him to give the pipeline to Enron. Now, it’s the same George w. Bush , who said that he did not know Ken Lay until 1994. You know for…
AJ: And now we have these hearings of money laundering. You know, I was at Enron yesterday in Houston because I live here in Austin. We were approximately 9 metres from the gate on the sidewalk – and I have it on video – guards came out and said that you can not draw. I told them, then ‘stop me ‘. You say that he was on the sidewalk, Greg.
GP: Well, you know, I was there in may, informing the public of England who had never heard of Enron, but… And these are the types who have discovered how to mislead the current Government.
In fact, we saw some interesting documents, one month until that Bush took over, Bill Clinton – and I think that in revenge for authors of the campaign of Bush – Enron has pulled out of the California market. Put a cap on the prices they could charge. They could not charge more than 100 times the normal price for electricity.
That changed to Enron. Then Ken Lay personally wrote a note by Dick Cheney to take the Clinton stop in price. Within 48 hours of the Bush assumption, its energy Department revoked bumper for Enron.
OK, how much is worth for these guys? You know how much this should be worth, she offset within a week, all donations to the campaign.
AJ: listen to pumps that you this release! You are interviewing for these Ministers, the former head of the IMF, the World Bank economist, you got documents, accounts of Bank Switzerland of sobornada people, all this. So… let’s move on to part 2, what they do after that begins the destruction of a country.
GP: Well, then they tell you that it must begin to make budget cuts. A fifth of the population of the Argentina is unemployed and they say to drastically benefits for the unemployed, to attract pension funds, reduce the budget for education, I speak of horribly bad things.
Now if you cut the economy in the midst of a recession that was created by these types, you will absolutely need to demolish the nation. After we were attacked Sept. 11, Bush came out and said « we have to spend $50 to $ 100 billion to save our economy. We do not start to cut the budget, but we started to try to save this economy. But they say that these countries: you must cut, cut and cut.
According to documents, it is for them to make payments to foreign banks. Foreign banks charge between 21% and 70% interest. It’s super-usura. Yes, in fact, it was bad, they needed Argentina to repeal laws against the super-usura.
Because any bank would be a loan shark Act of the Argentina.
AJ: But Greg , you said yourself that the documents show. First of all, they destroy the economy to create this atmosphere. They create complete climate that creates this situation.
GP: Yes and then they say, ‘ well a friend, we do not we can lend you money only if you accept these rates super-usurarias « . We do not allow people to copper 75% interest in the United States. This is super-usura.
AJ: … and part 3 and part 4. What do do?
GP: Like I said, you open the borders for trade, the new opium war. And once you have destroyed an economy that it can produce nothing, one of the most terrible things that they oblige Nations to pay a terrible price for things like remedies – drugs legal.
And by the way, then how you just to have an illegal drug trade and who are the only thing left to survive are we sell drugs…
AJ: And the CIA, the dictatorship of the national security, has been taken in Exchange for drugs.
GP: You know, ‘ only we helped our allies’… ‘.
AJ: It is amazing. Then flow around the world, destroying the economy and then buy what is left for parts. When is part 4 of the Plan of the IMF and the World Bank?
GP: Well, in part 4 you finish by disarming the Government. And by the way, real part 4 is the coup d ‘ état. This is what they don’t say. And I hear this on me at the Venezuela. I just got a call from the President of Venezuela.
AJ: And they have implemented their own Governments to undertaking private…
GP: What they have said is:
« Here, you have a president chosen by the people » and the IMF announced, listen to this, « that if president Chavez was overthrown, it would support a transitional Government ».
They do not say that they are involved in the politics of the country. They say only that he would support a transitional Government.
What they are saying is,
« We will pay for the shot, if the army overthrow the current President, because the current President of the Venezuela has said no to the IMF ».
He told them to types of the IMF to make pockets. They brought their teams and said ‘you need to do this and that’.
And he said:
« I do not not have nothing to do.
« what I will do: I will double taxes oil companies, because we have lots of oil to the Venezuela. » And if I duplico of taxes on oil companies, then will have all the money I need for social programs and for the Government and will be a rich country « . »
Well, just done this, they began to promote problems with the army and I tell you what to pay attention to the Venezuela: President of the Venezuela will be ousted in three months or will die.
They will not allow the increase in taxes for oil companies.
AJ: Greg Palast, here’s the problem. You said when it aired. They are hungry, they want to do the same thing with the American Enron, by all evidence that I’ve seen so far, it was a screen, they steal the assets and then they forward them to other global companies more aged, then clean all and stealing pension funds.
Now they tell us that terrorism can attack at any time.
« Will happen if you do not give up their civil rights. »
Bush has not included the Congress and others who are supposed to should be in the secret government if there is a nuclear attack, according to the Washington Post: « The Congress was not Avisado Government in the shadows ».
We have the President of the Senate, who did not know. This looks like a coup d’etat here in the United States. I’m if account. Better we spread this information or these creatures hungry will be left with everything.
GP: I am very worried about one thing. I reported this in the mainstream media of Great Britain. I’m in the BBC despite the Lord Wakeham. I know that he does not want I there.
I’m on the BBC, I am in the main newspaper, which is the equivalent of the New York Times, and we can publish information. I am very sad to use an alternative press, alternative radio network to be able to extract the information that is really important here (in the United States).
I would like to say that the information should be available to all Americans. I mean, after all, is our Government
Which has funded Adolf Hitler?
OUAIH! THAT A FINANCE, THIS CREVURE!
That we come to me, it is because the French?
Funding of Hitler and the Nazi movement has yet to be explored in exhaustive depth. The only review published personal finance of Hitler is an article of Oron James Hale, « Adolph Hitler: taxpayer, 1 brushes of which Adolph documents with the tax German, before becoming Reichskanzler, Hitler in the 1920s is presented for the German taxman as simply a poor writer living on bank loans, with a car .bought on credit. » Unfortunately, the original documents used by Hale do not give the source of income of Hitler, loans or credit, and German law « did not autonomous individuals or professionals to reveal in detail the sources of income or the nature of the services rendered. » 2 obviously funds for automobiles, private Secretary Rudolf Hess, an assistant, a chauffeur and expenditures by political activity, came from somewhere. But as 1917 Trotsky in New York stay, it is difficult to reconcile expenditure known Hitler with the specific source of revenues.
Some backers of Hitler at the beginning
We know that the European industrialists and prominent American sponsoring all kinds of totalitarian political groups at this time, including Communists and Nazi groups. The Kilgore Committee American notes that:
Of 1919 Krupp already gave financial assistance to one of the reactionary political groups who have sown the seed of this Nazi ideology. Hugo Stinnes was a contributor early in the Nazi party (National Socialistische Deutsche Arbeiter Partei). By 1924 other prominent industrialists and financiers, including Fritz Thyssen, Albert Voegler, Adolph [sic] Kirdorf and Kurt von Schroder, secretly gave substantial sums to the Nazis. In 1931 members of association of the coalowners Kirdorf head which undertake to pay 50 pfennigs to each tonne of ‘ coal sold, the money to go to the organization who Hitler was building. 3
Munich 1924 trial of Hitler probative value than the Nazi party received $20 000 industrial Nuremberg. The most interesting name of this period, it is like to Emil Kirdorf, who had earlier acted as conduit for the financing of the German participation in the Bolshevik revolution. 4 Kirdorfs role in the financing of Hitler was, in his own words:
In 1923, I came in contact for the first time with the National Socialist Movement… I first heard the Führer in the showroom of Essen. His clear presentation completely convinced and overwhelmed me. In 1927 I met the Führer personally. I travelled to Munich and there was a conversation with Hitler at home Bruckmann. For four years and a half hours Adolf Hitler explained his program in tail. Then, I begged the Führer to set up the Conference that he gave me in the form of a brochure. I then distributed this booklet on my behalf in business and manufacturing circles.
Since I placed myself completely at the disposal of its movement, shortly after our conversation of Munich, and so of the brochure which composed the Fuehrer and I distributed, several meetings were held between the Führer and personalities in the field of the testing of the Indus. For the last time before the support of power industry leaders gathered in my house with Adolf Hitler, Rudolf Hess, Hermann Goering and other figures in the party. 5
In 1925, Hugo Stinnes family contributed financially to convert the Nazi Völkischer Beobachter weekly to a daily publication. Putzi Hanf-staengl, a friend of Roosevelt and protected, provided the remaining funds. 6 table 7-1 summarizes the currently known financial contributions and the associations of undertakings of the contributors in the United States. Putzi is not listed in table 7-1 that it was neither industrial nor financial.
In the 1930s, Hitler assistance began to flow more easily. There was place in Germany a series of meetings, irrefutably documented in multiple sources, between German industrialists, Hitler himself and more often representatives of Hitler Hjalmar Sehaeht and Rudolf Hess. The critical point is that German industrialists, financing of Hitler were especially administration of the agreements with the U.S., property associations, participation or form any subsidiary connection. Donors of Hitler were not, in general, purely German companies, or representative of a German family company. With the exception of Thyssen and Kirdoff, in most cases, they were the multinational German – , I.G. Farben, A.E.G., DAPAG, etc. these multinationals have been formed by ready American in the 1920s and early 1930s had the American administration and the strong American financial participation.
A stream of foreign political funds not considered here is that mentioned in the European database Royal Dutch Shell, great competitor of Standard Oil in the 1920s and 30 and the fruit giant businessman Anglo – Dutch Sir Henri Deterding. It has been widely asserted that Henri Deterding personally financed Hitler. This argument is made, for example, by biographer Glyn Roberts in the most powerful man in the world. Notes Roberts Deterding was impressed by Hitler earlier in 1921:
.. .and the Dutch press has reported that, through the agent of Georg Bell, he [Deterding] had made available to Hitler, while the party was still « in long clothes, » no less than four million guilders. 7
It was reported (by Roberts) who in 1931 Georg Bell, agent of Deterding, attended meetings of Ukrainian Patriots in Paris « as a common delegate of Hitler and Deterding. » 8 roberts also reports:
Deterding was accused, as Edgar Ansell Mowrer testifies in his Germany puts the clock Back, of putting in place a large sum of money for the Nazis, with the understanding that success would give a more favourable position in the German market oil. On other occasions, included figures as high as £55 000 000. 9
Biographer Roberts really are strong Deterding anti-bolchevisme bad taste, and rather than hard evidence of funds it is willing to assume rather than prove that Deterding was pro-Hitler. But Pro-hitlerisme is not an inevitable consequence of the anti-bolchevisme; in any State of cause Roberts offers no evidence of finance, and tangible evidence of the involvement of Deterding was not found by this author.
Mowrer book contains no index or notes about the source of his information and Roberts has no evidence of his accusations. There is circumstantial evidence that Deterding was Pro-nazis. Later, he went to live in the Hitler Germany and has increased its share of the German oil market. So there may have been some contributions, but these have not been proven.
Similarly, in France (January 11, 1932), Paul Faure, Member of the Chamber of Deputies, has accused the industrial firm French Schneider-Creuzot of financing Hitler – and also involved Wall Street in other funding channels. 10
The Schneider group is a famous firm of French arms manufacturers. After having recalled the influence of Schneider in the establishment of fascism in Hungary and its extensive international armament operations, Paul Fauré turns to Hitler and the quotes from the book French log, « that Hitler had received 300 000 francs gold » from subscriptions open to the Netherlands in the case of a University Professor named von Bissing. The Skoda of Pilsen plant, said Paul Fauré, was controlled by the Schneider French family, and it is the administration of Skoda von Duschnitz and von Arthaber, making subscriptions to Hitler. Fauré concluded:
. . . I am disturbed to see the administration of Skoda, controlled by Schneider, subsidize the election campaign of Mr. Hitler; I am disturbed to see your business, your financial, your industrial cartels themselves unite with the most nationalist of the Germans…
Yet once again, no solid evidence was found for this stream of Hitler Fund.
Fritz Thyssen and W.A. Harriman Company of New York
Another elusive case of funding reported Hitler is that of Fritz Thyssen, magnate of German steel which is associated with the Nazi movement in his early twenties. When questioned in 1945 under the garbage project,11 Thyssen recalled that he was approached in 1923 by general Ludendorff at the time of the evacuation of French of the Ruhr. Shortly after that meeting Thyssen was presented to Hitler and supported the Nazis by general Ludendorff. In 1930-1931, Emil Kirdorf approached Thyssen and subsequently sent Rudolf Hess to negotiate additional funding for the Nazi party. This time ci Thyssen arranged a credit of 250 000 marks the Bank Voor Handel en Scheepvaart N.V. in 18 Zuidblaak in Rotterdam, Holland, founded in 1918 with H.J. Kouwenhoven and D.C. Schütte associated directors. 12 this Bank was a subsidiary of the Thyssen Bank in August of Germany (formerly of von der Heydt Bank A.G.). It was Thyssen personal banking operation, and he has been affiliated with the W. A. Harriman’s financial interests in New York. Thyssen reported to interrogators project garbage which:
I chose a Dutch Bank, because I didn’t want to be confused with German banks in my position, and because I thought it was better to deal with a Dutch Bank, and I thought I would have a little more Nazis in my hands. 13
Book I paid Hitler, Thyssen published in 1941, was supposed to be written by Fritz Thyssen itself, although Thyssen denies paternity. The claims of book which funds for Hitler – about 1 million mark – came mainly from Thyssen itself. I paid Hitler has other assertions not supported, for example Hitler was actually descended from an illegitimate child of the Rothschild family. So-called grandmother of Hitler, Frau Schickelgruber, had been a servant in the House of Rothschild and while it has become pregnant:
… an investigation once ordered by the late Austrian Chancellor, Engelbert Dollfuss, gave interesting results, due to the fact that the police of the Austro-Hungarian monarch records were remarkably complete. 14
This assertion regarding the illegitimacy of Hitler is fully refuted in a book more solidly founded by Eugene Davidson, which involves family Frankenberger, not the Rothschild family.
In any cause and appropriate from our point of view, the prior August Thyssen bank in Holland – that is, the Bank voor Handel en Scheepvaart N.V. – controlled the Union Banking Corporation in New York. The Harrimans had a financial interest in, and E. Roland Harriman (brother of Averell) was a film director, the Union Banking Corporation. Union Banking Corporation of New York City was a joint operation of Thyssen-Harriman with the following directors in 1932:15
E. Roland HARRIMAN
Vice President of W. A. Harriman & Co., New York
Nazi banker, managing partner of August Thyssen Bank and Bank voor Handel Scheepvaart N.V. (the transfer of funds from Thyssen Bank)
J. G. GROENINGEN
Vereinigte Stahlwerke (cartel of steel that also funded Hitler)
President, Union Banking Corp., New York City
E. S. JAMES
Brown Brothers partner, later Brown Brothers, Harriman and Co.
TABLE 7-1: THE LINKS BETWEEN THE INDUSTRIAL FINANCIAL AMERICANS AND ADOLF HITLER
Thyssen has arranged a credit of 250 000 brands for Hitler, through this Dutch Bank, affiliated with the Harrimans. Book of Thyssen, repudiated later, indicates that as much as 1 million marks came from Thyssen.
American partners of Thyssen were, of course, prominent members of the financial institution of Wall Street. Edward Henry Harriman, 19th century railway Tycoon, had two sons, W. Averell Harriman (born 1891) and E. Roland Harriman (born in 1895). In 1917, W. Averell Harriman is a Director of Guaranty Trust Company, and he participated in the Bolshevik revolution. 16 according to his biographer, Averell began the bottom of career as a cashier and main section after leaving Yale in 1913, then ‘ it steadily increased to positions of increasing responsibility in the areas of transport and finance. . 17 in addition to his position in Guaranty Trust, Harriman formed the company of merchant shipbuilding in 1917, which became soon the largest merchant fleet under the American flag. This fleet was decided in 1925 and Harriman entered the lucrative Russian market. 18
In liquidation these Russian offers in 1929, Averell Harriman received a windfall profit of $1 million usually Soviet hard head, which have a reputation to give nothing without some present or later quid pro quo. In addition to these movements successful in international finance, Averell Harriman has always been attracted by what is called ‘public’ service. In 1913 Harriman ‘public’ service started by appointment to the Board of Palisades Park. In 1933, Harriman was appointed president of the New York State Employment Commission and in 1934 became NRA of administrative officer of Roosevelt – the fruit as Mussolini’s General Electric Gerard Swope. 19 There followed a flood of offices ‘public’, while first the Lend Lease program, and then as Ambassador in the Soviet Union, and then as Secretary of Commerce.
On the other hand, E. Roland Harriman limited its activities to private enterprises in international finance without venturing, as did brother Averell, in « utility ». In 1922, Roland and Averell form W. A. Harri-man & company. Roland still later became president of the Board of Directors of the Union Pacific Railroad and Director of Newsweek magazine, Mutual Life Insurance Company of New York, Member of the Board of Governors of the American Red Cross and a member of the American Museum of Natural History.
Financial Nazi Hendrik Jozef Kouwenhoven, fellow-Director of Roland Harriman of the Union Banking Corporation in New York, was Director of the Bank voor Handel en Scheepvaart N.V. (BHS) of Rotterdam. In 1940, the BHS held approximately $2.2 million active in the Union Banking Corporation, which in turn has made the bulk of its business with the BHS. 20 in the 1930s Kouwenhoven was also administrator of the Vereinigte Stahlwerke A.G., the cartel steel founded with funds from Wall Street in the middle of the 1920s. As Baron Schroder, he was a prominent supporter of Hitler.
Another administrator of the Union Banking Corporation of New York was Johann Groeninger, something German with many industrial and financial affiliations involving the Vereinigte Stahlwerke, August Thyssen group and one post of August Thyssen hut A.G. 21
This affiliation and business mutual interest between Harriman and the interests of Thyssen does not suggest that the Harrimans has directly funding Hitler. On the other hand, it shows that the Harrimans are interrelated with the prominent Nazis Kouwenhoven and Groeninger and a bank before Nazi, the Bank voor Handel en Scheepvaart. There is every reason to believe that the Harrimans was aware of support of Thyssen for the Nazis. In the case of the Harrimans, it is important to keep in mind their intimate relationship and long term with the Soviet Union and the position of the Harriman to the centre of Roosevelt’s New Deal and the Democratic Party. It seems that some members of the elite of Wall Street are associated and certainly influential with all significant political parties in the Socialist spectrum of the contemporary world – Soviet socialism, Hitler Nazism and socialism of the New Deal of Roosevelt.
Funding of Hitler in March 1933 General election
Put Georg Bell-Deterding and cases of Thyssen-Harriman on the one hand, we are now examining the basis of support for Hitler. In May 1932 the so-called « Kaiserhof meeting » took place between Schmitz of I.G. Farben, Max Ilgner American I.G. Farben Kiep’s Hamburg-Amerika Line and potash Diem German Trust. More than 500 000 marks was raised during this meeting and credited to the Rudolf Hess in Deutsche Bank. It should be noted, to light the « myth of Warburg » described in Chapter ten Max Ilgner American I.G. Farben contributed 100 000 RM, about one-fifth of the total. The « Sidney Warburg » book claims Warburg participation in the financing of Hitler, and Paul Warburg was Director of the American I.G. Farben22 while Max Warburg was Director of I.G. Farben.
There is irrefutable documentary evidence of another role of. industrial and international bankers in the financing of the Nazi party and the Volkspartie for the German election, March 1933. A total of 3 million Reichmarks was underwritten by major corporations and businessmen, properly « washed » via an account at the Bank of Delbrück Schickler and then passed to the hands of Rudolf Hess for use by Hitler and the NSDAP. This transfer of funds was followed by the burning of the Reichstag, the repeal of constitutional rights and the consolidation of Nazi power. Access to the Reichstag by the arsonists was obtained through a tunnel from a house where Putzi Hanfstaengel was staying; the burning of the Reichstag itself was used by Hitler as a pretext to abolish constitutional rights. In short, within a few weeks of major funding of Hitler, there was a sequence related to major events: the financial contribution of eminent bankers and industrialists in the election of 1933, fire the Reichstag, the repeal of constitutional rights and the subsequent seizure of power by the Nazi party.
Fundraising met February 20, 1933 in the House of Goering, who was then president of the Reichstag, with Hjalmar Horace Greeley Schacht acting as host. Among those present, according to the von Schnitzler of I.G. Farben, were:
Krupp von Bohlen, who, in early 1933, was Chairman of the Reichsverband der Deutschen industry Reich Association of German industry; Dr. Albert Voegler, head of the Vereinigte Stahlwerke man; Von Loewenfeld; Dr, Stein, head of Gewerkschaft Auguste-Victoria, a mine which belongs to the IG. 23
Hitler outlined his political views for the businessmen gathered in a speech from long hours of two-and-a-half, using the threat of communism and a Communist take-over wisely:
It is not enough to say that we are not communism in our economy. If we continue on our old political path, then we will perish… It is the noblest task of the Chief to find ideals that are stronger than the factors that bring together the people. I recognized even in the hospital that one should seek new ideals conducive to reconstruction. I found them in nationalism, the value of the personality and the refusal of reconciliation between nations…
Now we are before the last election. Whatever the result, no there is no withdrawal, even if the upcoming election brings no decision, one way or another. If the election does not decide, the decision must be caused by other means. I intervened to give people once more the chance to decide their fate on their own…
There are only two possibilities, either to cram back the opponent on constitutional grounds, and for this purpose once more this election; or a fight will be conducted with other weapons, this which may require more sacrifices. I hope that the German people thus recognizes the greatness of time. 24
After Hitler had spoken, Krupp von Bohlen expressed the support of the industrial Assembly and bankers in the concrete form of a fund policy three million-mark. It has proved to be more than enough to get energy, because 600 000 brands remained unused after the election.
Hjalmar Schacht has organized this historic meeting. We have already described the links of Schacht with the United States: his father was cashier at the Berlin fair insurance industry, and Hjalmar was intimately involved almost on a monthly basis with Wall Street.
The largest contributor to the Fund was I.G. Farben, which committed como itself for 80 percent (or 500 000 brands) of the total. Director A. Steinke, of BUBIAG (Braunkohlen-u. Brikett-Industrie a.g. a subsidiary of IG Farben, personally contributed another 200 000 brands. In short, 45 per cent of the funds for the election of 1933 came from I.G. Farben. If we look at the administration of the American I.G. Farben, the U.S. subsidiary of I.G. Farben – approach the roots of the involvement of Wall Street with Hitler. Board of Directors of the American I.G. Farben, at that time contained some of the most prestigious names in American manufacturers: Edsel B. Ford of Ford Motor Company, C.E. Mitchell of the Federal Reserve Bank of New York and Walter Teagle, Director of the Federal Reserve Bank of New York, the Standard Oil Company of New Jersey, and Franklin D. Roosevelt Georgia Warm Springs Foundation.
Paul M. Warburg, first Director of the Bank of New York and president of the Bank of Manhattan, has been a Director of Farben, Germany, his brother, Max Warburg was also administrator of I.G, Farben. H. A. Metz of I.G. Farben also was a Director of Bank of Manhattan of the Warburg. Finally, Carl Bosch of American I.G. Farben was also a Director of Ford Motor Company A to G in Germany.
Three members of the Board of American I.G. Farben were found guilty at the Nuremberg War Crimes Trials: Max Ilgner, F. Ter Meer and Hermann Schmitz. As we have noted, the members of the American jury – Edsel Ford, C. E. Mitchell, Walter Teagle, and Paul Warburg – were not tried in Nuremberg and as far as the records are concerned, it appears not even challenged on their knowledge of the Fund Hitler 1933.
Political Contributions 1933
Who were industrialists and bankers who have placed electoral funds at the disposal of the Nazi party in 1933? The list of contributors and the amount of their contribution is as follows:
CONTRIBUTIONS FINANCIAL TO HITLER:
Feb. 23 – Mar. 13, 1933:
(Hjalmar Schacht in Delbrück, Schickler Bank account)
Political contributions by companies (with selected affiliated directors)
Verein fuer die Bergbaulichen interests (Kitdorf)
I.G. Farbenindustrie (C.E. Mitchell, Edsel Ford, Paul Warburg, Walter Teagle)
Automobile exhibition, Berlin (Reichsverbund der Automobilindustrie S.V.)
A.E.G., German general Electric (Gerard Swope, Owen Young, minor C.H., Arthur Baldwin)
OSRAM G.m.b.H. (Owen Young)
Telefunken Gesellsehaft kickass
1 310 000
More political contribution by individual entrepreneurs:
Director A. Steinke (BUBIAG-
Braunkohlen – u. Brikett-
Dir. Karl Lange (Geschaftsfuhrendes
The Deutsches Maschinenbau – Anstalten Vereins Vostandsmitglied)
Dr. F. Springorum (President: Eisen-und Stahlwerke A.G. Hoesch)
Source: See the annex for the translation of the original document.
How can we prove that these political payments actually took place?
The Hitler in this last step on the road to dictatorial Nazism had been paid for through the Bank of Delbrück Sehickler. The Bank of Delbrück Schickler was a subsidiary of Metallgesellschaft AG (« Metall »), an industrial giant, the largest non-ferrous metals company in Germany and the dominant non-ferrous metal influence world ‘ trading. The main shareholders of « Metall » were I.G. Farben and the British society of metal. It may be noted also that the British administration on the « Metall » Aufsichsrat were Walter Gardner (Amalgamated Metal Corporation) and Captain Oliver Lyttelton (also on the Board of the Amalgamated Metal and paradoxically later in the second world war to become the British Minister of Production).
There are records of the Nuremberg trials the initial transfer slips of the division of banking of I.G. Farben and other institutions listed at page 110 in the Bank of Delbrück Schickler in Berlin, to inform the Bank of Dresdner Bank funds transfer and other banks, their National Treuhand (guardianship national) account. This account has been disbursed by Rudolf Hess for expenditures for the Nazi party during the election. Translation of the schedule of transfer of I.G. Farben, selected as a sample, is as follows:25
Translation of I.G, Farben letter of February 27, 1933, advising transfer of 400 000 Reichsmarks on behalf of national guardianship:
I.G. FARBENINDUSTRIE AKTIENGESELLSCHAFT
Firm: Delbrück Schickler & Co.,
Mauerstrasse 63/65, Frankfurt (Main) 20
Our Ref:, February 27, 1933 (mention in response)
B. / expert group.
We inform you hereby that we have allowed Dresdner Bank in Frankfurt/M., pay you tomorrow morning: RM 400 000 that you will use for the ‘TREUHAND NATIONALE »(national guardianship) account.
I.G. Farbenindustrie Aktiengesellschaft
(Signed) BANGERT (signed) SELCK
By special delivery. 26
at this stage, we should take note of the efforts that have been made to direct our attention from American financial (and financial Germans linked to U.S. affiliates) who were involved in the financing of Hitler. Usually the blame for the financing of Hitler has exclusively been on Fritz Thyssen or Emil Kirdorf. In the case of Thyssen, this responsibility has been widely distributed in a book supposedly written by Thyssen in the middle of the second world war, but later repudiated by him. 27 why Thyssen would admit such actions prior to the defeat of Nazism is unexplained.
Emil Kirdorf died in 1937, has always been proud of its association with the rise of Nazism. The attempt to limit funding to Thyssen and Hitler’s Kirdorf extended in the Nuremberg trials in 1946 and has been challenged by the Soviet delegate. Even the Soviet delegate was not willing to provide evidence of American associations; This is not surprising, because the Soviet Union depends on the goodwill of these financial same to transfer Western technology advanced to the USSR.
In Nuremberg, the statements were made and allowed to pass who were directly contrary to the known direct evidence presented above. For example, Buecher, Director-general of the German General Electric, was absolved of sympathy for Hitler:
Thyssen has confessed his mistake as a man and courageously paid a heavy penalty for this. On the other side stand men like the Gutehoffnungshuette Reusch, Karl Bosch, the late president of the I.G. Farben Aufsichtsrat, which would most likely happen to a sad end, if he had not died in time. Their sentiments are shared by the vice-president of the Kalle Aufsichtsrat. The Siemens and AEG companies which, next to I.G. Farben, were the most powerful German concerns, and they were determined opponents of national socialism.
I know that this hostile attitude share the concern of Siemens to the Nazis resulted in the company receiving a pretty rough treatment. The Director general of the AEG (Allgemeine Elektrizitäts Gesellschaft), Geheimrat Buecher, I knew my stay in the colonies was far from being a Nazi. I can assure general Taylor that it is certainly not true that major industrial thus favoured Hitler before his seizure of power. 28
Yet on page 56 of this book that we reproduce a document from General Electric, General Electric funds transfer on behalf of national supervision Rudolf Hess on behalf of Hitler-controlled and used in the elections of 1933.
Similarly, von Schnitzler, who attended the meeting of February 1933 on behalf of I.G. Farben, refused contributions from I.G. Farben at the Nationale Treuhand of 1933:
I’ve never heard again from all [that of funding Hitler] of importance, but I think that is the buro of Goering or Schacht or the Reichsverband der Deutschen Industrie had asked the Office of Bosch or payment of the creditors of the elec tion IG Schmitz to the Fund. As I did not resume the case once again I have not even at that time knew so and the amount had been paid by the IG. The volume of the IG, I should estimate IG shares something like 10% of the funds for the election, but as much as I know there is no evidence that I.G. Farben participated in payments. 29
As we have seen, is irrefutable evidence concerning political contributions with Hitler at the crux of the takeover of power in Germany – and earlier Hitler’s speech to industrialists showed clearly that a coercive takeover was the premeditated intent.
We know exactly who contributed, how and through what channels. It is worth noting that the largest contributors – I.G. Farben, German General Electric (and its affiliate Osram) and Thyssen – were affiliated to financiers on Wall Street. These financiers of Wall Street have been at the heart of the financial elite and they have been important in contemporary American politics. Gerard Swope of General Electric was the author of the New Deal of Roosevelt, Teagle was one of the main directors of NRA, Paul Warburg and his associates to American I.G. Farben were advisors of Roosevelt. Maybe it’s not an extraordinary coincidence New Deal that Roosevelt – called a « fascist » by Herbert Hoover measurement – expected were victim looked like Programme for Hitler’s Germany, and Hitler and Roosevelt took power in the same month of the year – March 1933.
1 The American Historical Review, Volume LC, no. 4, July. 1955 p, 830
2 ibid., n. (2)
3 . elimination of German, resources p. 648. The Albert Voegler mentioned in the Committee’s list of Kilgore first defenders of Hitler was the representative of Germany on the Plan of the Dawes Commission. Owen Young from General Electric (see chapter three) has been a representative American for the Dawes Plan and formulated his successor, the Young Plan.
4 Antony C. Sutton, Wall Street and the Bolshevik revolution, op. cit.,
5 Preussiche Zettung 3 January 1937.
6 see p. 116
7 Glyn Roberts, the most powerful in the world, man (New York: Covicl, Friede, 1938), p. 305
8 ibid., p. 313
9 ibid., p. 322
10 see Chamber of Deputies – debates, February 11, 1932, pp. 496-500
11 Council of the American Group (Germany0 Office of the Director of intelligence, agency of Information technology). Intelligence Report No.. 1.4-ME-EF September 1945. ‘Review of Dr. Fritz Thyssen,’ p, 13, hereinafter referred to as examination of Dr. Fritz Thyssen.
12 the Bank was known in Germany as fur Bank Handel und Schiff.
13 review of Dr. Fritz Thyssen.
14 Fritz Thyssen, I paid Hitler, (New York: Farrar & Rinehart, Inc., 1941). p. 159
15 Directory of bankers, tire! 932 edition, p, 2557 and Poors, Directory of Directors. J.L. Guinter and Knight Woolley were also directors.
16 see Antony C. Sutton, Wall Street and the Bolshevik revolution, op.
17 National Cyclopaedia, Volume G, page 16
18 for a description of these companies, based on the files of the Department of State, see one, tony v. Sutton, Western technology and Soviet economic development Volume 1, op cit.
19 see Antony C. Sutton, Wall Street and RAD. Chapter nine, «Swope Plan», op. cit..
20 see the elimination of German, resources p. 728 – 30
21 for other connections between the Union Banking Corp and German companies, see ibid., pp. 728 – 30
22 see Chapter 10.
23 NMT, Volume VII, p. 555
24 Josiah E. Dubois, Jr., General gray Suits Loc. cit., p. 323
25 original reproduced at page 64
26 NMT, Volume VII, p. 565. See p. 64 for photography of the original document.
27 Fritz Thyssen, I paid Hitler, (New York: Toronto: Jamal & Rinehart, Inc., 1941).
28 NMT, Volume VI, pp. 1169-1170
29 NMT, Volume VII, p. 565