le 13052015 C E


nuovo ordo mundi

Cuban Missile Crisis1962
Hi all

EH! the ECB, forget, your Treaty, it is of Tin, it is obsolete, no steps available, I AI DIS, not, as french 54.67%de, in 2005 for the Lisbon Treaty

all french on May 29, 2005 (not: 15 449 508 (54.67% of NON) in the Referendum, ratification of the Treaty of Lisbon), I hope your commissions of laws, it is the Senate, because if it is the European commission, it flared, it is not valid, you can say all you want n, is flared


In short, spend the murder of Lady Diana was sponsored by the Crown of England, and particularly prince Philip, Duke of Edinburgh, and the contract was given to MI6, outside of the United Kingdom and the Mossad intelligence service. The Royal family of England did not a pretender to the throne of Arab origin, see even Muslim…,thank you grandmother, thanks dad, thanks Tonton, EH, BEN, you said no thank you, the child,

Namely, that all the world has and has mourned, the English people came to mass 3 million people, were present, but represents those who were far away, and that could not come

I understand better now the SEX PISTOLS when they sang (GOD SAVE

THE SHOAH is from the USA, in the UK (GVI), and HITLER (obviously)


(Prescott Bush, was a U.S. Senator) and he, hilter was supposedly the founder of israel, somewhere, I’m not surprised when I see LIKUD, all for fonctonnait IGFARBEN, manufacturer of zyklon b, 6 million death

7 Queen Elizabeth II (Windsor Family of Britain) German & Greek usurpers of the British Crown.

This does not preclude that the United States, with the grandfather BUSH, normal, was informed by the same opportunity Wnston Churchill, and Franklin is a GAG (and links Bush with the Consolidated Silesian Steel Company (CSSC), based in Silesia, in the minerals-rich German-Polish border. During the war, this company profited from slavery organized by the Nazis in concentration camps, including Auschwitz.) We know, why? now!, this, me recall one sentence in the Rotschild manifest, which said they need to you you are taking listed 2 (15 ) WARS WILL BE INSTIGATED, FINANCED and DIRECTED so that we control BOTH SIDES, placing all parties FURTHER INTO OUR DEBT. (American Revolution through Desert Storm, Afghanistan and WW III?, )

The Windsor, what saga!

They are so brave they will take English names, because some are German, Bavaria, including whatever ‘ each, no, two, not three, but many Brewers, and that’s why, what it n ya more of Unicorn (GAGs, on French TV channels) not go promised, I order, that is why, there are several kinds of beer,

House of Saxe-Coburg – Gotha (/saːksˈkoʊˌbɜrɡəndɡoʊθəˈ/;) ( German: Haus Sachsen-Coburg und Gotha) is a German dynasty, the line of the Saxon House of Wettin that ruled the Ernestine Duchies , including the Duchy of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha.

The Royal House of several monarchies was founded by Ernest Anton, sixth Duke of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld, European and branches currently reign in Belgium through the descendants of Leopold I, and in the Commonwealth realms by the descendants of Prince Albert. To anti-German to the United Kingdom during the first World War, George V of the United Kingdom changed the name of its branch from Saxe-Coburg and Gotha to Windsor in 1917. The same thing happened in Belgium where it was replaced by « van België » (Dutch) or « of Belgium » (in French).

The British celebrate the 60th anniversary of the accession to the throne of their sovereign. It is only the fourth to bear this dynastic name.

The castle of Windsor, in Great Britain. – / Maxppp

By Véronique Dumas (Historia)

After sixty years of reign over 120 millions of topics across four continents, Elizabeth II , after King Bhumibol of Thailand, the oldest head of State in office. It is believed that her gracious Majesty will reign at least as long as her grandmother, Queen Victoria, remained almost sixty years on the throne of England. The Kingdom celebrates so pomp this anniversary. The weeks preceding these ceremonies, the Queen and members of the Royal family will have criss-crossed Britain and the Commonwealth, consisting of fifty-four States members of this economic union, heir to the British Empire since 1931. In honor of the Diamond Jubilee of the last sovereign sacred world, back on the turbulent history of a dynasty: the Windsor.

‘Wicked uncles’

The English Royal family has not always taken this surname if British-sounding. In full world war I, King George V decided to adopt it. But to understand the reasons for the name change, it is necessary to go back to the days of Queen Victoria. When it barely 18 years old, ascended to the throne on the death of his father on June 20, 1837 – she will be crowned one year later —, the prestige of the Royal House is at its lowest, to the point that many French wish to abolish the monarchy, as tells it the collective work the Kings don’t die jamais (Fayard (, 2006). ‘Wicked uncles’ the Queen, thus are called public opinion, have contributed to the deterioration of its image by their depraved behavior. They belong, as their niece, to the House of Hanover that, since 1714 and the accession to the throne of King George Ier, reigns on this state of Northern Germany and Great Britain.

Modern England, the source of parliamentary democracies, ignores the Salic law that prevents women to reign. Reason why, with the death of Guillaume IV, disappeared without male heir, Victoria, daughter of his brother Édouard, Duke of Kent, could succeed him in England but not in Hanover. Therefore, the two crowns are separate. While his uncle, prince Ernst-August, became King of Hanover, Victoria is crowned Queen of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland. On February 10, 1840, the young Queen married her first cousin, Albert of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha, nephew of his mother and the first King of the Belgians, Leopold of Saxe-Coburg. When the prince of Wales, son of Victoria and Albert, rises to the throne January 22, 1901, under the name of Édouard VII, it therefore bears the name of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha. The new King is best known by his subjects for his escapades as for his political sense. Of course fickle and worldly, this sovereign, francophile and pacifist, intelligent and visionary, artisan of the Entente cordiale, has in fact nothing in common with his nephew, Guillaume II, one of the grandsons of Victoria, Emperor of Germany and King of Prussia since 1888, renowned for its prudishness, his belligerent character, his dislike of the French and his pan ideas.

They take English names

When World War II broke out, the struggle between the United Kingdom and the German Empire doubles as a family conflict. The discreet and dignified George V, who succeeded his father, who died on May 6, 1910, was the first King to speak English without a too-pronounced German accent. In order to clarify the position of the Saxe-Coburg-Gotha towards their German kin, he decided to change his surname to a typically English surname. Windsor, name of a royal residence in South London, emblematic of the history of England, is needed. Tuesday, July 17, 1917, the King announced in the Court Circular, the official journal of the Court, its waiver of all its German names and titles. « With effect from the day of our Royal proclamation, our home and our family will be called and known as the House and family of Windsor », he says. The news was greeted with joy in the Kingdom. « Windsor, wrote Jean of the Cars in the Saga of the Windsor (Perrin, 2011), this name so old that it was rooted in centuries of history, appeared as a singular renewal. » Other dynasties, closely related to the Royal family, also change names as the Battenberg, morganatic of the House of Hesse, become Mountbatten, or the Dukes and princes of Teck, derived from a branch of morganatic of the House of Württemberg, brothers of Queen Mary and therefore brothers of the King, renamed as Cambridge. At the time of the armistice of 1918, two major figures are the pride of the United Kingdom: Lloyd George, the Prime Minister, and King George V who embodies the stability of the British State.

Ill, the King is worried about the future of the Kingdom. His son and successor designated to the throne, Edward, prince of Wales, appears with Wallis Simpson, an American divorced and remarried, to which police reports attribute number of lovers and a furious attraction to money. In addition, Édouard has used to express political opinions, which is not recommended for a future King. Fascinated by the Mussolini regime, it does not hide his admiration for Hitler. The emissaries of the Führer attempt, not without success, to revive Germanic fiber within the Royal family. On 20 January 1936, George V makes his last breath. The King is dead, long live the King. Edward VIII is the thirty-ninth sovereign of England and the second of the House of Windsor. In the fall, all of England talks about the incredible rumor: the new ruler would have the intention to marry Mrs Simpson, divorced for the second time, at which the press lends an affair with Ribbentrop, the Ambassador of the Third Reich to London. It is too much. Summoned to choose by the Prime Minister, Stanley Baldwin, Édouard VIII chose the beautiful American. On 11 December 1936, he explained in a speech the reasons for his abdication. Irony of history, the ex-souverain will now bear the title Duke of Windsor. In a year, the British monarchy will, for the first time in its long history, see three Kings will succeed. After his father George V and his brother not crowned Édouard VIII, the Duke of York became George VI. Suffering from a strong stutter that it strives to heal with the help of an unconventional speech therapist, Lionel Logue, as well as tells it beautifully the movie the King’s speech, it eventually accepted by duty, the charge entrusted to him.

William, the son of Diana

Everything has been written about the exemplary behaviour during WWII of the King and Queen Élisabeth, née Bowes-Lyon, daughter of the Earl of Strathmore, the future Queen Mum beloved by the English until his death in 2002, at the age of 101. Their popularity is matched only by that of Winston Churchill, the man who, the first, has been able to take the measure of the danger of Adolf Hitler. On May 8, 1945, George VI, Elizabeth and their two daughters, Elizabeth and Margaret, and Churchill, will appear on the balcony of Buckingham Palace, the cheers of the crowd. Two and a half years later, England revives the splendour of the pre-war period on the occasion of the wedding of Crown Princess, Elisabeth and Philippe of Greece and Denmark, nephew of King Constantin Ier, dethroned in 1922. The eldest daughter of the royal couple has managed to overcome the reluctance of her parents. Young prince without fortune, converted to Anglicanism, naturalized, titled Duke of Edinburgh, Philip adopted the name of his mother, Mountbatten. After the death of George VI, on 6 February 1952, one of the first steps taken by the young Queen will be to announce that she and his offspring will continue to be called Windsor. On June 2, 1953, Élisabeth II is crowned at Westminster Abbey.

At the beginning of 21st century and after the tumultuous love life of prince Charles, England wondered who will be the fifth King of the Windsor dynasty. If the prince of Wales is to him the rules of devolution of the Crown, the public prefers the son of the unforgettable Diana, William, Duke of Cambridge. The Queen will be tempted to follow the feelings of its people in order to strengthen the sustainability of the Windsor dynasty? For the time being, it is not yet question of abdication.

This article was published in the monthly no. 786 of Historia


The Queen A LLEMANDE, Queen ELISABETH II, Queen of England (, what, it’s true, what I said)

I’m German, but I take it all what it me incentive to the UK, Scotland, Ireland (United Kingdom) (United States) zombie land (as they are so cons these English, and, these French, that they will see to fire) Unfortunately, this is what she thinks (I can see from here, but how can he know, what she thinks, it’s true, I do not know!) but, it does remove that head because, if it were otherwise, it would have not hidden us the death of Hitler in1960, in Argentina, in others, for the famous landing, which, magre, his many victims, was a farce, the Germans knew, or would instead of ebarquement, I learned by a post by Henry Makow (when I read this post I stumbled on the ass, I thought not, is like the mortd’HITLE R, but on this post, that I read, and which, I can’t turn hand top, on site that I just vousfiler, it was certainly removed from site, which is surprising for a guy who is precisely against the nwo(, on,lui a peut simplement volé) (you know, you never know!,) as me, so on this post, there was so much detail, that it was impossible, that it has,

And in fact, on this post, the simulation, it was performed on English beaches, because they were the beaches, which corresponded, the better to a landing and especially that resembled the best beaches French, sincerely, I had, hard to believe it but it seems so truthful and frankly, ca me etonnerait even not. Unfortunately, and surtouqu’ there is brain drain also derangespour this kind of thing, NUREMBERG, is passed, however, will have to


Henry Makow holds a Ph.d. in English literature from the University of Toronto in 1982. Welcomes your comments to henry@henrymakow.com – complete summary at: http://henrymakow.com/000447.html

http://www.Zombietime.com/zomblog/?p=606 is a French site, for those who want to legalize CANNABIS. How certain, well, would like to see us like this, they could play the playstation for real, a zombie who attack = 100 Point, another, that walking = 5 Point, although suur that I exaggerated, but not so much!, Mef agree, that you are taking to zombies, non.vous understand why, they want to legalize the cannabis, and, stop to take cameos, because they are not Instead of

they spin the Zhang, spinning the good medical services, process not offenders, but sick.

A bit of history

British Premiers of Victoria

Prime Minister, it has only a part


Viscount Melbourne (Whig)


Sir Robert Peel (conservative)


Lord John Russell (W).

1852 (Feb.)

Earl of Derby (C)

1852 (Dec.)

Earl of Aberdeen (Peelite)


Viscount Palmerston (Liberal)


Earl of Derby (C)


Viscount Palmerston (L)


Earl Russell (L)


Earl of Derby (C)

1868 (Feb.)

Benjamin Disraeli (C)

1868 (Dec.)

William Gladstone (L)


Benjamin Disraeli (C)


William Gladstone (L)


Marquess of Salisbury (C)

1886 (Feb.)

William Gladstone (L)

1886 (July)

Marquess of Salisbury (C)


William Gladstone (L)


Earl of Rosebery (L)


Marquess of Salisbury (C)

Victoria (Alexandrina Victoria; 24 may 1819 – 22 January 1901) was Queen of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland from 20 June 1837 until his death. Since May 1, 1876, she used the additional title of Empress of India.

Victoria was the daughter of Prince Edward, Duke of Kent and Strathearn, the fourth son of King George III. Both the Duke of Kent and King George III died in 1820, and Victoria grew up under close supervision by his German-born mother Princess Victoria of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld. She inherited the throne at the age of 18, after three brothers of his father died, leaving no surviving legitimate child. The United Kingdom was already an established constitutional monarchy, wherein the sovereign held relatively little power political direct. In private, Victoria tried to influence government policy and ministerial appointments. Publicly, she became a national icon and has been identified with strict standards of personal morality.

Victoria married her cousin, Prince Albert of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha, in 1840. Their nine children married into the families of Royal and noble of the continent, bind them together and he earned the nickname « the grandmother of Europe ». After Albert’s death in 1861, Victoria grieves deep and avoided public appearances. As a result of his imprisonment, republicanism temporarily gained in strength, but in the second half of his reign, his popularity has recovered. His gold and diamond Jubilees were moments of public celebration.

His reign of 63 years and seven months, which is longer than that of any other British monarch and the longest of any female monarch in history, is known as the Victorian era. It was a period of industrial, cultural, political, scientific and military change within the United Kingdom and was marked by a great expansion of the British Empire. It is the last British monarch of the House of Hanover. His son and successor of Édouard VII, belonged to the House of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha, the line of his father.

Victoria’s father was the Prince Edward, Duke of Kent and Strathearn, the fourth son of the reigning king of the United Kingdom, George III. Until 1817, niece of Edward, Charlotte of the Princess of Wales, was the only legitimate grandchild of George III. His death in 1817 precipitated a succession crisis that put pressure on the Duke of Kent and his brothers single to marry and have children. In 1818, he married Princess Victoria of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld, a widowed German Princess who had already two children – Carl (1804-1856) and Feodora (1807-1872) – by his first marriage with the of. Her brother Prince of LeiningenLeopold was the widower of Princess Charlotte. The Duke and Duchess of Kent’s only child, Victoria, was born at 4.15 a.m.. on 24 May 1819 at Kensington Palace in London. [1]

Victoriaâ was baptized by the Archbishop of Canterbury, Charles Manners-Sutton, on 24 June 1819, in the room of the dome at Kensington Palace. [2] she was named Alexandrina, after one of its godfathers and godmothers, Emperor Alexander I of Russia and Victoria after her mother. Additional names proposed by the parents – Georgina (or Georgiana), Charlotte and Augusta – were dropped on the instructions of Duke’s elder brother, the Prince Regent (later George IV). [3]

at birth, Victoria was fifth in the line of succession after his father and his three older brothers: the Prince Regent, the Duke of York and the Duke of Clarence (later William IV). [4] the Prince Regent and the Duke of York were separated from their wives, who were both past the age of childbearing, while the two elder brothers were unlikely to have other children. The Dukes of Kent, Clarence married on the same day to 12 months prior to the birth of Victoria, but the two daughters of Clarence (born in 1819 and 1820, respectively) died in infancy. Grandfather and father died in 1820, in a week apart and the Duke of York Victoria died in 1827. At the death of his uncle George IV in 1830, Victoria became heiress presumptive to his next surviving uncle, William IV. Regency Act 1830 made a special provision for the Duchess of Kent, to act as regent in the event that William died while Victoria was always minor. [5] William King was suspicious of capacity of the Duchess to be regent, and in 1836, declared in his presence that he wanted to live up to the 18th birthday of Victoria, so that a Regency could be avoided. [6]

Heir presumptive

Victoria with her Spaniel Dash, 1833

Victoriaplus later described her childhood as « rather melancholy. [7] his mother is extremely protective, and Victoria grew in large part isolated from other children of the so-called « Kensington system », an elaborate set of rules and protocols developed by the Duchess and her ambitious and domineering controller Mr John Conroy, who has been rumored to be the lover of the Duchess. [8] the system has prevented the Princess of the meeting of people including his mother and Conroy deemed undesirable (including most of his father’s family) and was designed to restore sound weak and dependent on them. [9] the Duchess has avoided the Court because she was outraged by the presence of children of bastard of King William, [10] and perhaps sparked the emergence of Victorian morality in insisting that her daughter is avoiding any appearance of sexual impropriety. [11] Victoria shared a bedroom with his mother every night, studied with private tutors private to a regular schedule and spent his hours of play with her dolls and her King Charles spaniel, dash. [12] his lessons include French, German, Italian and Latin, [13] but she only spoke English at home. [14]

In 1830, the Duchess of Kent and Conroy had Victoria through Central England to visit the Malvern Hills stopping in towns and large villas along the way. [15] similar trips to other parts of England and Wales have been taken in 1832, 1833, 1834 and 1835. The boredom of the King, Victoria was enthusiastically, welcomed in each stage. [16] William compared travel on Royal progresses and feared that they represented Victoria as his rival rather than as his heir presumptive. [17] Victoria disliked excursions; the constant round of public appearances made her tired and sick and there was little time to rest. [18] it is opposed on the grounds of the disapproval of the King, but his mother dismissed her complaints as motivated by jealousy and forced Victoria to continue visits. [19] in Ramsgate in October 1835, Victoria contracted a severe fever, which Conroy initially rejected as a childish pretext. [20] while Victoria was sick, Conroy and the Duchess in vain harassed make Conroy her private Secretary. [21] as a teenager, Victoria resisted persistent attempts by his mother and Conroy appoint him to its staff. [22] once that the Queen, it forbids its presence, but he remained in his mother’s House. [23]

In 1836, brother of the Duchess, Leopold, who had been King of the Belgians since 1831, hoped to marry her niece to his nephew, Prince Albert of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha. [24] Leopold, mother of Victoria and Albert’s father (Ernest I, Duke of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha) were brothers and sisters. Leopold arranged for the mother of Victoria to invite relatives of Cobourg to him to visit in May 1836, with the aim of presenting Victoria Albert. [25] William IV, however, disapproved of any match with the Coburgs, and instead favoured the suit of Prince Alexander of the Netherlands second son of the Prince of Orange. [26] Victoria was aware of the various matrimonial regimes and a parade of eligible princes critical assessment. [27] according to his diary, she enjoyed the company of Albert from the beginning. After the visit that she wrote, « [Albert] is very beautiful; her hair is the same color as mine; its eyes are large and blue, and he has a beautiful nose and a very sweet mouth with fine teeth; but the charm of his face is his expression, which is most delicious. » [28] Alexander, meanwhile, was « very clear ». [29]

Victoria wrote to his uncle Léopold, including Victoria, considered his « best and kindest Adviser », [30] thanking him « for the prospect of great happiness you have contributed to give me, in the person of Mr Albert… He possesses every quality that may wish to make me perfectly happy. It is therefore sensible, so nice and so good and so friendly too. It has also the most pleasant and charming from the outside and appearance, you can possibly see. » [31] However in 17 years, Victoria, although interested in Albert, was not yet ready to marry. The parties does not have a formal commitment, but guess that the match will take place within the time period. [32]

Victoria receives the news of her accession from Lord Conyngham (left) and the Archbishop of Canterbury.

Victoria turned 18 24 May 1837 and a Regency was avoided. On 20 June 1837, William IV died at the age of 71 years, and Victoria become Queen of United Kingdom. [33] in her diary, she wrote: « I was has woke up at 06:00 by Mamma, who told me the Archbishop of Canterbury and Lord Conyngham were here and wished to see me.  » I got out of bed and came in my living room (only in my dressing gown) and seulet SUV. « Lord Conyngham then knowledge of me than my poor uncle, the King, was no more and had expired at 12 minutes past 2 this morning, and therefore I am Queen. » [34] official documents described it the first day of his reign as Alexandrina Victoria, but the name was removed at his own desire and not reused. [35]

Since 1714, Britain had shared a monarch with Hanover in Germany, but under law women Salic were excluded from the Hanoverian succession. Then that Victoria inherited all the British dominions, Hanover passed instead of younger brother of his father, his unpopular uncle of the Duke of Cumberland and Teviotdale, who became King Ernest Augustus I of Hanover. He was his heir apparent until she was married and had a child. [36]

At the time of its accession, the Government was led by the Whig Prime Minister Lord Melbourne, who both became a strong influence on the politically inexperienced Queen, who relied on him for advice. [37] Charles Greville assumed that the widowed and childless Melbourne enjoyed « passionately of her as he could be her daughter, if he had a ‘, and Victoria probably saw him as a father figure. [38] his coronation took place on 28 June 1838, and it became the first sovereign to settle at Buckingham Palace. [39] she has inherited the duchies of Lancaster and Cornwall revenue and received a civil list £ 385 000 per year. Financially prudent, she paid the debts of his father. [40]

Early in his reign, that Victoria was popular, [41] but his reputation suffered in an 1839 Court intrigue when one of the venue of his mother, Lady Flora Hastings, placed at the point abdominal growth that has been widely spread to be a pregnancy out of wedlock by Sir John Conroy. [42] Victoria believes the rumors. [43] she hated Conroy and despised « this abhorrent Lady Flora », [44] because she had conspired with Conroy and the Duchess of Kent, in the Kensington system. [45] as a first step, Lady Flora refused to undergo a medical examination nude, until mid-February she finally accepted and has proved to be a Virgin. [46] Conroy, the family of Hastings and the opposition Tories held a press campaign questioning the Queen in the spread of false rumors about Lady Flora. [47] when Lady Flora died in July, the autopsy revealed a large tumor on his liver that had inflated its abdomen. [48] at public appearances, Victoria was whistled and roundly derided establishment as « Mrs. Melbourne ». [49]

In 1839, Melbourne resigned after radicals and the Tories (both Victoria hated) voted against a Bill to suspend the constitution of Jamaica. The Bill removed the power policy planters who resisted associated measures the abolition of slavery. [50] the Queen commissioned a Tory, Sir Robert Peel, to form a new Ministry. At the time, it was customary for the Prime Minister to appoint members of the King’s House, which were usually political allies and their spouses. Many Queen ladies of the Court were wives of Whigs and Peel expected to replace them with wives of Tories. In what became known as the crisis of the bedroom, Victoria, advised by Melbourne, oppose their deletion. Peel refused to govern under the restrictions imposed by the Queen, and consequently resigned, allowing Melbourne to return to office. [51]

However, as a young single woman, Victoria was required by social convention to live with his mother, despite their differences on the Kensington system and his mother the Queen continues to depend on Conroy. [52] his mother was sent to a remote apartment in Buckingham Palace and Victoria often refused to meet her. [53] when Victoria complained to Melbourne that proximity to his mother has promised « tormenting for many years ‘, Melbourne sympathized but said it could be avoided by marriage, who called Victoria one » cause [sic] alternative ‘. «  » [54] she has shown interest in the education of Albert for the future role he would play as her husband, but she resisted attempts to rush to him in marriage. [55]

Victoriaâ continued to praise Albert after his second visit in October 1839. Albert and Victoria felt mutual affection and the Queen offered him on 15 October 1839, five days only after arriving in Windsor. [56] they married on 10 February 1840, in the Chapel Royal, St James Palace, London. Victoria was loving. She spent the evening after their marriage, lying down with a headache, but wrote with ecstasy in his diary:

I never, ever spent such an evening! My… Dear Dear Dear Albert his excessive love & affection gave me the feeling of heavenly love & happiness I never could have hoped to have felt before! He clasped me in his arms, & we kissed again and again! Its beauty, its sweetness and softness – really how can I ever be pretty grateful to have such a husband! … to be called by the names of tenderness, I’ve never heard used for me before – was Bliss boggles the mind! Oh! It was the happiest day of my life! [57]

Albert became a political advisor important as companion to the Queen, replacing Lord Melbourne as the dominant, influential figure in the first half of his life. [58] mother of Victoria has been expelled from the Palace, at Ingestre House in Belgrave Square. After the death of Princess Augusta in 1840, mother of Victoria was given two Clarence and Frogmore homes. [59] mediation by Albert, mother-daughter relations improved slowly. [60]

Edward Oxford in his attempt to murder Victoria, 1840

First pregnancy at the Victoria in 1840, in the first months of marriage, 18-year-old Edward Oxford attempted to assassinate it while she was in a car with Prince Albert on his way to visit his mother. Oxford fired twice, but either the two missed balls or, as he said later, the guns had no shot. [61] it has been tried for high treason and found guilty, but was acquitted for reasons of insanity. [62] in the aftermath of the attack, Victoria popularity soared, mitigate the residual dissatisfaction on the Hastings affair and the crisis of the bedroom. [63] his daughter, also named Victoria, was born on 21 November 1840. The Queen hated being pregnant, [64] read with disgust, [65] and thought breastfeeding infants were ugly. [66] However, seventeen years following, she and Albert were still eight children: Albert Édouard, Prince of Wales (b. 1841), Alice (b. 1843), Alfred (b. 1844), Helena (b. 1846), Louise (b. 1848), Arthur (b. 1850), Leopold (b. 1853) and Beatrice (b. 1857).

Victoria household was run largely by his childhood governess, Baroness Louise Lehzen from Hanover. Lehzen had been a formative influence on Victoria, [67] and it supported against the Kensington system. [68] Albert, however, thought Lehzen was incompetent and that his poor management threatens the health of his daughter. After a furious dispute between Victoria and Albert on the issue, Lehzen was pensioner, and Victoria close relations with it took late. [69]

On May 29, 1842, Victoria was in a car along The Mall, London, when John Francis aimed a gun at him but not the fire weapon; He escaped. The next day, Victoria drove the same route, although more quickly and with an escort of more, in a deliberate attempt to cause Francis to take a second aim and catch in the Act. As expected, Francis shot him, but he was seized by plainclothes police and convicted of high treason. July 3, two days after the death of Francis sentence been commuted to transportation for life, John William Bean also tried to start a gun to the Queen, but only loaded with paper and tobacco and was too cheap. [70] Edward Oxford felt that the attempts were encouraged by his acquittal in 1840. Bean was sentenced to 18 months in prison. [71] in a similar attack in 1849, Irish unemployed William Hamilton fired a filled with gun powder to the Victoria carriage as it passed the long Constitution Hill, London. [72] in 1850, the Queen did support the injury when she was assaulted by a possibly crazy ex-army officer, Robert Pate. As Victoria was riding in a car, Pate struck with his cane, her Cap crushing and bruising to his forehead. Hamilton and dough were sentenced to seven years. [73]

Melbournede support in the House of Commons has weakened the first years of the reign of Victoria and in the 1841 General election the Whigs were defeated. Peel became Prime Minister and the ladies of the Court more closely involved the Whigs were replaced. [74]

In 1845, the Ireland was hit by a potato blight. [76] in the next four years more than 1 million Irish died and millions of others have emigrated in what became known as the Great Famine. [77] in Ireland, Victoria has been described as « the Queen of the Famine. [78] [79] personally, she donated £2 000 to the relief of famine, more than any other individual donor, [80] and has also supported the Maynooth Grant at a Catholic seminary in Ireland, despite Protestant opposition. [81] the story that she has donated just £5 in the Irish aid and the same day gave the same amount of Battersea Dogs home, was a myth generated towards the end of the 19th century. [82]

1846, Peel Ministry faced a crisis involving the repeal of the Corn Laws. Many Tories – so also known as Conservatives – were opposed to the repeal, but Peel, some Tories (the « Peel »), most of the Whigs and Victoria supported it. Peel resigned in 1846, after the repeal closely past and was replaced by Lord John Russell. [83]

On the international level, Victoria took a keen interest in the improvement of relations between the France and Great Britain. [84] she did and has hosted several visits between the British Royal family and the House of Orleans, who were related by marriage, through the Coburgs. In 1843 and 1845, she and Albert stayed with the King Louis Philippe I to the castle had the in Normandy; She was the first monarch English or British to visit a French since the meeting of Henri VIII of England and Francis I of France on the cloth of gold in 1520. [85] when Louis Philippe made a move mutual in 1844, he became first King French to visit a British sovereign. [86] Louis Philippe has been deposited in the revolutions of 1848 and fled to exile in England. [87] at the height of a revolutionary fright in the United Kingdom in April 1848, Victoria and his family left London for the greater safety of Osborne House, [88] a domain private on the Isle of Wight, they had bought in 1845 and refurbished. [89] demonstrations of Chartists and Irish nationalists could not attract broad support, and fear is calmed down without any major disruption. [90] first visit to Victoria in Ireland, in 1849, was a public relations success, but he had no lasting impact or effects on the growth of Irish nationalism. [91]

Ministry of Russell, if Whig, was not favoured by the Queen. [92] she found particularly offensive Foreign Minister Lord Palmerston, who often acted without consulting the Cabinet, the Prime Minister, or the Queen. [93] Victoria complained to Russell that Palmerston sent official dispatches to his unbeknownst to outsiders, but Palmerston leaders would be kept in the office and continued to act on its own initiative, despite its repeated admonitions. It was only in 1851 that Palmerston was removed after it announced the approval of the British Government to the President of Louis-Napoléon Bonaparte coup of in France without consulting the Prime Minister. [94] the following year, President Bonaparte was declared Emperor Napoleon III, time at which the administration of Russell has been replaced by a short-lived minority government led by Lord Derby.

AlbertVictoriaet their nine children, 1857: Alice, Arthur, Albert, Edward, Leopold, Louise, Victoria with Beatrice, Alfred, Victoria and Helena

In 1853, Victoria gave birth to her eighth child, Leopold, with the help of the new anesthetic, chloroform. Victoria was so impressed by the relief, there was the pain of childbirth that she used again in 1857 to the birth of his ninth and final child, Beatrice, despite opposition from members of the clergy, who ruled against biblical teaching and members of the medical profession, which was considered dangerous. [95] Victoria may have suffered from post-natal depression after several of her pregnancies. [96] intermittently, letters of Albert in Victoria are complaining of his loss of self-control. For example, about a month after the birth of Léopold Albert complained in a letter to Victoria as his « pursuit of hysteria » on a « miserable » bagatelle [97]

In 1855 at the beginning, the Government of Lord Aberdeen, who had replaced the Derby, fell in the middle of recriminations on the mismanagement of the British troops in the Crimean War. Victoria approached both Derby and Russell to form a Ministry, but none had sufficient support, and Victoria was forced to appoint as Prime Minister. [98]

Napoleon III, since the war of Crimea’s closest ally Britain, [96] visited London in April 1855 and 17 to August 28 of the same year, Victoria and Albert returned the visit. [99] Napoleon III met the couple at Dunkirk and accompanies them to Paris. They visited the Expo (a successor to the original idea of Albert the great exhibition of 1851) and Napoleon jede tomb at Les Invalides (to which his remains had been returned in 1840), and were guests of honour at a ball of 1 200-guest at the in Versailles. [100]

On January 14, 1858, an Italian refugee from Britain called Orsini attempted to assassinate Napoleon III with a bomb manufactured in England. [101] the diplomatic crisis that followed has destabilized the Government, and Palmerston resigned. Derby was reinstated as Prime Minister. [102] Victoria and Albert attended the opening of a new basin in the military port of Cherbourg French on August 5, 1858, in an attempt of Napoleon III to reassure Britain that its military preparations were directed elsewhere. Upon his return, Victoria wrote to Derby berate him for the poor state of the Royal Navy from the French. [103] Ministry of Derby did not last long, and in June 1859, Victoria reminded Palmerston at the office. [104]

Eleven days after the attempted assassination of Orsini in France, married the eldest daughter of Victoria Prince Frederick William of Prussia, London. They had been betrothed since September 1855, where the Princess Victoria was 14 years old; the marriage was delayed by the Queen and Prince Albert, until the bride was 17 years old. [105] the Queen and Albert had hoped that their daughter and son-in-law would be influenced by liberalization in the Prussian State expansion. [106] Victoria felt « sick at heart » to see his daughter to leave England for the Germany; « It really makes me shiver », she wrote to Crown Princess Victoria in one of his letters, frequent, « when I viewing tower for all your sisters sweet, happy, unconscious and think I have to give them up too – one by one. » [107] almost exactly a year later, the Princess Victoria gave birth to the first grandchild of Queen: Wilhelm who became the last German Kaiser.

Died in March 1861, the mother of Victoria, Victoria next to it. By reading the papers of his mother, Victoria discovered that his mother it had loved deeply; [108] it has the broken heart and blamed Conroy and Lehzen for « maliciously » he confessed of his mother. [109] to relieve his wife during his intense and deep, grief [110] Albert took over most of his duties, despite being ill himself with chronic stomach ache. [111] in August, the Victoria and Albert has visited their son, the Prince of Wales who attended the maneuvers of the army near Dublin and spent a few days on holiday in Killarney. In November, Albert has been aware of the gossip that his son had slept with an actress in Ireland. [112] appalling, Albert went to Cambridge, where his son was a student, to confront him. [113] at the beginning of December, Albert was very suffering. [114] he was diagnosed with typhoid by William Jenner and died on 14 December 1861. Victoria was devastated. [115] it has blamed the death of her husband on anxiety on the Prince of Wales runner petticoats. It had been ‘killed by this horrible company », she says. [116] it entered a State of mourning and wore black for the rest of his life. It has avoided public appearances and rarely set foot in London in the following years. [117] her seclusion earned him the nickname of « widow of Windsor. [118]

Victoria isolation voluntary reduced public popularity of the monarchy and favored the growth of the Republican movement. [119] she has official duties, but has chosen to remain isolated in its Royal residences – Windsor Castle, Osborne House and private in Scotland that she and Albert had acquired in 1847, Château de Balmoral. In March 1864, one protester stuck a notice on the gates of Buckingham Palace which announced « this local commander are let or sold as a result of business in decline by the end of the occupier ». [120] his uncle Leopold wrote to his informing him to appear in public. She agreed to visit the gardens of the Royal Horticultural Society in Kensington and take the road across London in an open carriage. [121]

Victoria and John Brown at Balmoral, 1863

In the 1860s, Victoria relied increasingly on a manservant from Scotland, John Brown. [122] slanderous rumours of a romantic and same connection a secret marriage appeared in the press, and the Queen was referred to as « Mrs. Brown. » [123] the story of their relationship was the subject of the 1997 Mrs. Brown film. A painting by Sir Edwin Henry Landseer representative the Queen with Brown has been exposed at the Royal Academy, Victoria published a book, leaves from the Journal of our life in the Highlands, where he played Brown in a good place and in which the Queen praised him highly. [124]

Palmerston died in 1865, and after a brief Ministry headed by Russell, Derby returned to power. In 1866, Victoria was present at the opening of Parliament for the first time since the death of Albert. [125] the following year, she supported the adoption of the Reform Act 1867, which doubled the electorate by extending the franchise to many men urban work, [126] if she did not support women’s suffrage. [127] Derby resigned in 1868, to be replaced by Benjamin Disraeli, who seduces Victoria. « Everyone loves flattery, » he said, « and when you come to the kingship you should lay it on with a trowel.  » [128] with the sentence « we writers, Madam », he congratulated his [129] Disraeli Ministry lasted only a few months and at the end of the year his liberal rival, William Ewart Gladstone, was appointed Prime Minister. Victoria is its much less attractive behavior of Gladstone; He spoke of her, she is supposed to have complained, as if it were « a public meeting rather than a woman. [130]

In 1870, Republican sentiment in Britain, nourished by the isolation of the Queen, has been strengthened after the establishment of the third French Republic. [131] a Republican rally in Trafalgar Square demanded the withdrawal of Victoria and speaks of the radical members against her. [132] in August and in September 1871, she was seriously ill with an abscess in his arms, which Joseph Lister successfully, lanced and treated with its new acid antiseptic carbolic spray. [133] in late November 1871, at the height of the Republican movement, the Prince of Wales has contracted typhoid, the disease that was supposed to have killed her father, and Victoria was afraid that his son was going to die. [134] the approach of the tenth anniversary of the death of her husband, condition of his son grew up not better, and distress of Victoria suite. [135] in the general rejoicing, it is sucked in. [136] mother and son took part in a public procession in London and a great service of thanksgiving in St Paul Cathedral on February 27, 1872 and Republican missing feeling. [137]

The last day of February 1872, two days after Thanksgiving service, aged of 17 Arthur O’Connor (grand-nephew of Irish Member of Parliament Feargus O’Connor) waved a gun discharged in the open transport of Victoria, just after his arrival at Buckingham Palace. Brown, who attended the Queen, grabbed and O’Connor was sentenced to 12 months imprisonment. [138] the incident, popularity of Victoria recovered more. [139]

Empress of India

Proclamation of Queen Victoria

After the Indian Rebellion of 1857, the British East India Company, who ruled over a large part of the India, was dissolved and British possessions and protectorates on the Indian subcontinent were formally incorporated into the British Empire. The Queen had a vision relatively balanced the conflict and condemned the atrocities committed on both sides. [140] she wrote « feelings of horror and regret the outcome of this bloody civil war », [141] and insisted, pushed by Albert, who an official proclamation announcing the transfer of the power of the State company « must breathe feelings of generosity, benevolence and religious tolerance ». [142] under his leadership, a reference threatening « the undermining of indigenous religions and customs » has been replaced by a passage guaranteeing religious freedom. [142]

In the general election of 1874, Disraeli is returned to power. He spent the cult Public Regulation Act 1874, which removed the Catholic rituals of the Anglican liturgy and strongly supported by Victoria. [144] it preferred short and simple services and himself personally more aligned with the Presbyterian Church of Scotland as the Episcopal Church of England. [145] he also pushed Royal titles 1876 by the Parliament Act, while Victoria took the title of « Empress of India » from 1 May 1876. [146] the new title proclaimed at the Delhi Durbar of January 1, 1877. [147]

On 14 December 1878, the anniversary of the death of Albert, second daughter of Victoria Alice who married Louis of Hesse died of diphtheria in Darmstadt. Victoria noted the coincidence of dates as « almost unbelievable and most mysterious. [148] in may 1879, she became a great-grandmother (on the birth of Princess Feodora of Saxe-Meiningen) and past its « poor old 60th anniversary ». She felt « old » by the loss of my beloved child « . [149]

Between April 1877 and 1878 February, she threatened to abdicate five times while putting pressure on Disraeli to act against Russia in the Russo-Turkish war, but his threats had no impact on events or their conclusion with the Congress of Berlin. [150] policy of expansionist foreign of Disraeli, endorsing by Victoria, led to conflicts such as the Anglo-Zulu war and the second Anglo-Afghan war. « If we want to maintain our position as a great power », she wrote, « we must… be prepared for crises and wars, somewhere or other, continuously. » [151] Victoria saw the expansion of the Empire British as discourse and benign, Aboriginal protection of more aggressive powers or cruel leaders: « It is not in our custom to annex countries », she said, « unless we are forced and coerced to do so » [152] dismay at Victoria, Disraeli lost the general election of 1880, and Gladstone returned as Prime Minister. [153] when Disraeli died the following year, she was blinded by ‘fast falling tears’, [154] and erected a commemorative plaque « placed by his friend, Victoria R.I. and recognizing sovereign » [155]

Victorian Fatma 1884

On March 2, 1882, Roderick Maclean a disgruntled poet apparently offended by the refusal of Victoria to accept poems, [156] shot to the Queen as his left chariot Windsor Station. Two pupils of Eton College hit with their umbrellas, until he was pushed from a distance by a police officer. [157] Victoria was outraged when he was declared not guilty by reason of insanity, [158] but was so pleased by the many expressions of loyalty after the attack who said that it was « worth to be shot – to see how much it is loved ». [159]

March 17, 1883, she fell down stairs in Windsor, which has left her lame until July, it has never fully recovered and was faced with rheumatism subsequently. [160] Brown is died 10 days after her accident, and to the dismay of his private Secretary, Sir Henry Ponsonby, Victoria began working on a laudatory biography of Brown. [161] Ponsonby and Randall Davidson, Dean of Windsor, who had seen the first two drafts, Victoria warned against the publication, on the grounds that it would stoke rumors of a love affair. [162] the manuscript was destroyed. [163] in early 1884, Victoria was published more let go of a sheet of a life in the Highlands, a sequel to his book, that she dedicated to his « staff accompanist and faithful friend John Brown dedicated ». [164] the day after the first anniversary of the death of Brown, Victoria was informed by telegram that his younger son, Leopold died in Cannes. It was « the most expensive of my dear son », she lamented. [165] the following month, the youngest child of Victoria, Beatrice met and fell in love with Prince Henri of Battenberg at the wedding of the granddaughter of Victoria Princess Victoria of Hesse and the Rhine to the brother of Henry Prince Louis of Battenberg. Beatrice and Henry had planned to marry, but opposite Victoria the match in a first time, wish to keep Beatrice at home to act as his companion. After one year, it has been won around to the marriage of Henry and Beatrice of promise to stay living with and attend his [166]

Victoriaetait happy when Gladstone resigned in 1885 after its budget was defeated. [167] she thought that his Government was « the worst I’ve ever had » and he blamed for the death of General Gordon in Khartoum. [168] Gladstone was replaced by Lord Salisbury. Salisbury Government lasted only a few months, however, and Victoria was forced to recall Gladstone, that she considered to be a « half crazy & really in many ways silly old man ». [169] Gladstone attempted to pass a bill granting Ireland home rule, but glee of Victoria, it is defeated. [170] in the election that followed, party of Gladstone lost of Salisbury and the new Government switched hands. Golden, The Munshi stands over Victoria as she works at Jubilee has desk

Victoria and the Munshi Abdul Karim.

In 1887, the famous British Empire Jubilee gold of Victoria. Victoria marked the fiftieth anniversary of her accession on 20 June with a banquet to which 50 Kings and princes were invited. The next day, she participated in a procession and attended a thanksgiving service in. Westminster Abbey [171] this time, Victoria is once more extremely popular. [172] two days later, on 23 June, [173] he engaged two Muslim Indians as servers, one of which has been Abdul Karim. He was soon promoted « Munshi »: he hindoustaniet acting as a clerk. [174] his family and servants were horrified and accused Abdul Karim of spying for the Patriotic League of Muslims and the polarization of the Queen against Hindus. [175] Squire Frederick Ponsonby (the son of Sir Henry) has discovered that the Munshi had lied about his ancestry and reported to Lord Elgin, Viceroy of the India « the Munshi occupy much the same position as John Brown to make » [176] Victoria dismissed their complaints as racial prejudice. [177] Abdul Karim remained in his service until he returned to India with a pension to his death. [178]

Victoriala eldest daughter became Empress consort of Germany in 1888, but she was widowed during the year, and grandson of Victoria Wilhelm becomes German Emperor Wilhelm II. Under Wilhelm, Victoria and Albert hopes of a liberal Germany were not met. He believed in autocracy. Victoria believed « little heart or Zartgefuhl [tact] – and… his conscience & intelligence have been completely wharped [sic] ». [179]

Gladstonerevient to power after the general election 1892; He was 82 years old. Victoria objected when Gladstone proposed naming the Radical MP Henry Labouchere in the Cabinet, so Gladstone agreed not to appoint him. [180] in 1894, Gladstone retired, and without consulting the outgoing Prime Minister, Victoria appointed Lord Rosebery as Prime Minister. [181] his Government was weak, and the following year Lord Salisbury replaced him. Salisbury remains Prime Minister until the end of the reign of Victoria. [182] Diamond Jubilee

On 23 September 1896, Victoria surpassed grandfather George III as the longest reigns in the history British and Scottish, English monarch. The Queen asked that any special celebration be postponed until 1897, to coincide with her Diamond Jubilee, [183] which was made at a festival of the British Empire on the proposal of the Minister for the colonies, Joseph Chamberlain. [184]

Prime Ministers of all the self-governing dominions were invited, and procession of Diamond Jubilee of the Queen across London included troops from all over the empire. The parade paused for open-air thanksgiving service, which was held outside St. Paul Cathedral, throughout which Victoria sat in her carriage open. The celebration was marked by great outpourings of affection for the septuagenarian Queen. [185]

Victorias’ visited continental Europe regularly for the holidays. In 1889, during a stay in Biarritz, she became the first monarch of Great Britain to set foot in Spain when it crosses the border for a brief visit. [186] in April 1900, the Boer War was so unpopular in continental Europe, that his annual trip to France seems unwise. Instead, the Queen went to Ireland for the first time since 1861, in part to highlight the contribution of the regiments Irish war in South Africa [187] in July, his second son Alfred (« Affie ») has died; « Oh, God! My poor Darling Affie went too », wrote in her diary. « Is a horrible year, nothing that sadness & horrors of the a kind & the other.  » [188] death and succession, Queen Victoria aged 80, 1899.

After a custom she maintained throughout her widowhood, Victoria spent the Christmas of 1900 at Osborne House on the Isle of Wight. Rheumatism in his legs had rendered her lame, and his eyesight was clouded by cataracts. [189] at the beginning of January, she felt « weak and sick », [190] and mid-January, she was « sleepy… dazed, [and] confused ». « . [191] she died on Tuesday, January 22, 1901 at 06:30 the evening, at the age of 81. [192] his son and successor the King Edward VII and his eldest grandson, Kaiser Wilhelm II of Germany, were at his deathbed. [193] his favorite animal of company Pomeranian, Turri, has been on its deathbed as a last request. [194]

Displays proclaiming a day of mourning in Toronto the day of the funeral of Victoria

In 1897, Victoria had written instructions for his funeral, which was to be military as a worthy daughter of the soldier and the Army Chief, [96] and white instead of black. [195] January 25, Edward VII, Kaiser, and Prince Arthur, Duke of Connaught, helped raise him in the coffin. [196] she was dressed in a white dress and her wedding veil. [197] an array of souvenirs commemorating his extended family, friends and servants were laid in the coffin with him, at his request, by his doctor and convenient. One of the gowns of Albert was placed at his side, with a cast of hand, while a John Brownde hair lock, as well as a picture of him, has been placed in his left hand concealed at the sight of the family by a carefully positioned bouquet. [96] [198] jewelry items placed included Victoria the wedding ring of the mother of John Brown, given to him by Brown in 1883. [96] his funeral was held on Saturday, February 2, in St George’s Chapel, Windsor Castle, and after two days of lying-in, she was interred beside Prince Albert in the Frogmore mausoleum at Windsor Great Park. As she was buried in the mausoleum, it began to snow. [199]

A reign of 63 years, seven months and two days, Victoria is the longest reign British monarch and the longest reigns queen regnant in world history. It was the last monarch of Great Britain of the House of Hanover. His son and heir, Edward VII belonged to her husband House of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha. Heritage

Victoria amused. [200] the note « us are not amused » is attributed to it, but there is no direct evidence that she said never, [96] [201] and she denies doing so.  » [202] her staff and her family reported that Victoria « was greatly amused and exploded with laughter » repeatedly. [203]

According to one of his biographers, Giles St. Aubyn, Victoria wrote an average of 2 500 words per day during his adult life. [204] July 1832 until shortly before his death, she kept a detailed Journal, which included possibly 122 volumes. [205] death of Victoria after his youngest daughter, Princess Béatrice, was appointed his literary executor. Beatrice transcribed and edited the newspapers covering the accession of Victoria from and burned the originals in the process of. [206] Despite this destruction, much of newspapers still exist. In addition to the copy of Beatrice, Lord Esher transcribed volumes from 1832 to 1861 before Beatrice destroyed. [207] correspondence of Victoria were published in the volumes edited by A. C. Benson, Hector Bolitho, George Earle BuckleLord Esher, Roger Fulford, and Richard Hough among others. [208]

Victoriaetait physically little endorsement – it was stout, dowdy and not more than five feet tall, but she managed to project a large image. [209] unpopularity had during the first years of her widowhood, she was appreciated during the 1880s and 1890s, where she played the empire as a benevolent matriarchal figure. [210] only after the publication of its journal intimate and letters have been the extent of political influence became known to the general public. [96] [211] biographies of Victoria written before much of the raw material has become available, as Lytton Strachey’s Queen Victoria from 1921, are now considered to be obsolete. [212] the biographies written by Elizabeth Longford and Cecil Woodham-Smith, in 1964 and 1972 respectively, are still widely admired. [213] them and others, concluded that, as a person Victoria was emotional, stubborn, honest and outspoken. [214]

The reign of Victoria, through the gradual implementation of a modern constitutional monarchy in Britain continued. Reform of the voting system has increased the power of the Commons at the expense of of Lords and the monarch. [215] in 1867, Walter Bagehot wrote that the monarch only retained « the right to be consulted, the right to encourage and the right to warn. » [216] monarchy of as Victoria became more symbolic than political, it placed heavy emphasis on the values of morality and the family, in contrast to the sexual, financial and personal scandals that had been associated with several members of the House of Hanover and which had discredited the monarchy. The concept of the ‘family monarchy’ with which you could identify the middle classes in full swing, has solidified. [217] the Victoria Memorial in Kolkata India

The Victoria Memorial in front of Buckingham Palace was erected as part of the renovation of the façade of the Palace a decade after her death.

Victoria links with the Royal families of Europe earned him the nickname « the grandmother of Europe ». [218] Victoria and Albert had 42 grandchildren, 34 survived to adulthood. Their descendants include Elizabeth II, Prince Philip, Duke of Edinburgh, Harald V of Norway, Carl XVI Gustaf of Sweden, Margrethe II of Denmark, and VI de Felipe of Spain.

Victoria’s young son, Leopold was affected by hemophilia B blood clotting disease and two of her five daughters, Alice and Beatrice, were carriers. Hemophiliacs Royal descendants of Victoria included his great-grandsons, Tsarevich Alexis of Russia, Alfonso, Prince of Asturias and Infante Gonzalo of Spain. [219] the presence of the disease in the descendants of Victoria, but not in its ancestors, has led to the modern speculation that her true father was not the Duke of Kent but a hemophiliac. [220] there is no documentary evidence of a hemophiliac in relationship with the mother of Victoria, and male carriers always suffer from the disease, even if such a man existed it would have been seriously ill. [221] it is more likely that the mutation arose spontaneously because the father of Victoria was more than 50 years at the time of conception and haemophilia arises more frequently in children of older fathers. [222] spontaneous mutations account for about a third of the cases. [223]

Around the world, sites and monuments are dedicated to it, especially in the Nations of the Commonwealth. Places his name include the capital of Seychelles, largest lake in Africa, Victoria Falls the capitals of the British Colombia (Victoria)) and Saskatchewan (Regina)) and two States Australian (Victoria and Queensland).

The Victoria Cross was introduced in 1856 for acts of reward of Valour during the Crimean War, and it remains the most British, Canadian, Australian, and New Zealand bravery award. Victoria Day is a Canadian holiday and a local holiday in some parts of Scotland celebrated the last Monday before or on 24 May (birthday of Queen Victoria).

Titles, styles and arms

Titles and styles

24 may 1819 – 20 June 1837: her Royal Highness Princess Alexandrina Victoria of Kent

•20 June 1837 – 22 January 1901: her Majesty the Queen

•1st May 1876 – 22 January 1901: her Majesty the Queen-Empress Imperial

At the end of his reign, full of the style Queen and title were: ‘ « his Majesty Victoria, by the grace of God, of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland Queen, defender of the faith, Empress of India. ». [224]

As sovereign, Victoria used the Royal arms of the United Kingdom. Before its accession, has had no grant of arms. As she could not succeed to the throne of Hanover, his arm did not carry the Hanoverian symbols that were used by his immediate predecessors. His arms were supported by all of his successors on the throne.

Outside Scotland, the coat of arms for the shield – also used on Royal Standard – is: quarterly: I and IV gules three Lions passant leopard in pale or (for England)); II, or, a lion rampant in a double tressure Flory-counter-Flory gules (for Scotland); III azure a harp or stringed money for the Ireland). In Scotland, the first and fourth quarters are occupied by the Scottish lion and the second by the English lions. The ridges, currencies, and supporters also differ within and outside Scotland. [225]

Coat of Arms of the United Kingdom (1837-1952) .svg, Coat of Arms of the United Kingdom in Scotland (1837-1952) .svg, Royal Arms (outside Scotland), Royal Arms (in Scotland)

Proof! ‘World Government’ is a Ruse of banker ECB, my ass

In 1919, the Bank of England, dominated by the Rothschilds planned to encourage the United States to become a « British » colony in adhering to the League of Nations. The League of Nations, as « The British Empire », has been the stronghold of the bankers’, and this scheme would simply formalize a colonial status that already existed.

Bankers took to the United States during the Administration of Teddy Roosevelt (1901-1909) when front of Rothschild J.P. Morgan only controlled 25% of U.S. companies.

« Colonel E.M. House report », a refrigeration 10 pages ‘interim report’, in date of June 10,1919, proves that the League of Nations was an abortive attempt of World Government and a front for the tyranny of the banker. The report reveals the reality and the tactics behind the Organization of the United Nations and globalization.

House writes: « we have wrapped up this plan in the peace treaty so that the world must accept us League or the continuation of the war. The League is in essence as the Empire with America admitted in the same way as our other colonies. »

The report oozes contempt for the Americans and reveals the international finance of the deceptive methods employed 85 years ago to bring the World Government. These objectives and the methods have not changed. If ever we needed proof of an elite conspiracy to subvert the nation and enslave us, that’s it.

The author is colonel Edward Mandell House (1858-1938), the agent of the Rothschilds who secretly supervised the United States under the administration of Woodrow Wilson. Colonel House was known as a friend of Wilson and « alter ego ». (He had not served in the army and the word « Colonel » was purely honorary). The report is sent to the British Prime Minister David Lloyd George, whose career was made as a lawyer of the World Zionist Organization.

Rép Jacob Thorkelson (1876-1945) introduced the report of the Board at the Congress at Oct.1939 and published in the Congressional Record (October 13, 1939, pp.598 – 604). Were reduced to nil attempts to delete. The full text is available online.

The report details the progress of colonel House in preparing « for the peaceful return of the American colonies for the dominion of the Crown. »

« Crown » means the owners of the Bank of England. Their identities are an official secret. According to E.C. Knuth, the « international financial oligarchy uses the ‘Crown’ allegorical as a symbol of power and has its seat in the ancient city of London… the giant Bank of England, a private institution… is not subject to Regulation by the British Parliament and is indeed a sovereign power of the world. » (The Empire of the city, p. 59)

Colonel House continues: ‘The peaceful return of the American colonies’ can only occur with « the consent of the dominant group of clans control. »

Colonel House tells how these classes are taught to accept leadership ‘British ‘. It details how the universities and the press are occupied by ‘Born’ or Canadian.

« Through the Red Cross, the Scout movement, the YMCA, the Church and other religious organizations without cruelty, religious and quasies, we have created an atmosphere of an international effort that strengthens the idea of unity of the English-speaking world.  »

The Clubs Overseas, service clubs and charities of war» allow to invade all classes and sections of the country. »

« Keep us all American newspapers as isolated from the world non-Americans as if they had been in another planet instead of another hemisphere. The realization of this by the Associated Press and other news gatherers universal, except Hearst, was more useful in bringing only our point of view on the documents, that they served. »

It boasts that the United States ‘everything’ keeping a show to the outside of the independence is identical to other colonies in its relationship to the Crown. « Away from President Wilson set aside large marine program and conscientiously we conceded control of the seas? »

He advocates that « Anglo American alliance » became « the undisputed financial of the world.

He congratulated « our fiscal agents, mm. Pierpont Morgan & Company »to »put this country in the war. » They have « a great influence on the policy of the journal » through advertising and has loaned $200 000 000 to the Japan to build a fleet to compete with America (making the United States even more dependent of England).

The colonel has House as the « Crown » used sum loaned by the U.S. Government for purposes of war to capture oil fields in California, the Mexico and Latin America.

« The war has made us the custodians of the major part of the raw materials of the world… » Now largely control [us] the world’s oil deposits and therefore the world transportation and industry. »

The urgent question now is to « transfer dangerous sovereignty of the colony to the custody of the Crown. We must, in short, now bring America within the Empire. »

The first step was the plan of Wilson for the League of Nations ‘ which we have prepared for him. »

« The ordinary people of this country is faithful hero inveterate and incurable », explains colonel House. They can easily be manipulated by a man with a slogan that expresses « undefined aspirations.

Subsequently, they will approve the sloganeer no matter what he does. Wilson has won the trust and which represents « exceptional usefulness we.  »

« Any abrupt change may be startled the masses ignorant Americans and wake them up to the action against it. And we. Our best policy would therefore appoint President Wilson the first president of the League… He will be able to satisfy [Americans] far from yielding their independence to the League, they are, indeed, extending their sovereignty that it… »

Foreshadowing the Patriot Act, colonel House says Woodrow Wilson ‘ alone can father an anti-Bolshevik Act which interpreted judicially will allow appropriate punitive measures to be applied to any American who can be quite unwise to say that America should declare once more its independence.  »

Colonel House goes into detail about how Wilson must be messaged and manipulated. Many people think that someone else wrote this report, but only Edward Mandell House knew Wilson this well.

For example, he said, Wilson « is easily offended and remarkably vindictive. » The new British Ambassador should be a worshiper « Wilson » and « a gentleman waiting to the President. » It lists the gifts that Wilson has already been given.
« All our system of thought control ‘ is in the ŒUVRE

Colonel House suggests staging of the first session of the League of Nations in Washington.

« This will convince these simple people that they are the League and his power lies in them. »

It recommends a « series of shows by which the crowd can be diverted from any attempt to think too many matters beyond their province. »

« Pending these diversions for the vulgar, we are constantly asking them to the wonders of the League. His praises are tonnés by our press, decreed by our university presidents and professed by our teachers. Our authors, writers and professors are to analyse its selected… virtues we have enlisted 8000 propagandists of the League. We have organized national and international conferences, committees, conferences, convocations, conventions, advice… to announce the birth of the League as the dawn of universal peace. »

«Agronomists, bankers, brokers, accountants, pharmacists and all other functional groups capable of exercising an organized professional, commercial, financial or social pressure meet to approve the League on behalf of peace, progress and prosperity… « . « Our concerns of film are preparing for a photo that makes date… »

« In short, our entire system of control of thought works constantly, relentlessly, mercilessly, to ensure the adoption of the League. « It will be adopted, for business wants peace, the righteous do not withstand a Pact and politicians after the purposes of patronage shadow boxing, bring back valiantly lest the fate of recklessness out of adjustment and voluntary to their research. »


Thanks to the courageous opposition by Republican senators, the United States rejected the Treaty of peace, and with it, the League of Nations November 19,1919. The plot was foiled temporarily.

But the campaign secret secret bankers’ to impose tyranny the world has not diminished. They have funding Hitler and the second world war. The League of Nations was resurrected as the United Nations in 1945 and the cold war »initiated. Many believe that we are in the early stages of the ‘three world war.’

All segments of society continue to be propaganda with the virtues of the United Nations. National institutions are corrupt. The press and education continue to be controlled. Politicians are figureheads.

Some of the tactics have changed. The American empire has replaced the British Empire as their instrument of global hegemony. But Americans should not think they serve their own interests. They build a ‘new world order’ and his master is ‘the Crown ‘. In the words of colonel House, americains American will be settlers who for « petition at the foot of the throne. »

References to the control of the oil fields suggest that oil is primarily an instrument of world domination. The final step of the tyranny of the world is to take full control of Middle Eastern oil. This portends an invasion of the Iran.

The threat is not more can be characterized as « Jewish ». The Rothschilds have received a degree of collaboration among the elite financial, cultural and political world so as to render this moot point.

Lemming-like, Western elites have embraced a desire for death of civilization.


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