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National Security Agency

Page d’aide sur les redirections »NSA » redirects here. For other meanings, see NSA (disambiguation).
National Security Agency


Insigne de la NSA depuis 1966[1].
Badge of the NSA since 19661 .


4 November 1952


Department of Defense of the United States


Federal Government of the United States


Drapeau des États-Unis Fort George g. Meade (MD ))


39 ° 06′ 32″ N 76 ° 46′ 12″ O 39 ° 06′ 32″ N 76 ° 46′ 12″ O


21 650 in 20122

Annual budget

10.2 billions of U.S. dollars in 20122

Activity (s)

Electromagnetic intelligence, information systems security


Admiral Michael S. Rogers (Director)
Richard Ledgett (Deputy Director)

Mother Agency

Department of Defense of the United States
Member of theIntelligence Community

Web site

Location of headquarters

Location on map: Maryland

(Voir situation sur carte : Maryland)

National Security Agency

Location on map: United States

(Voir situation sur carte : États-Unis)

National Security Agency


Armed Forces Security Agency

Edit Consultez la documentation du modèle

The National Security Agency (NSA, « National security agency ») is a government agency of the Department of the Defense of the United States, responsible for electromagnetic intelligence and security of information systems and data processing of the U.S. Government.

The Central Security Service (CSS) is an agency that houses in the same offices as the NSA and established to coordinate the efforts of the sections of Cryptography of the NSA and theUS Army.

•1 missions
•2 history
◦2.1 origin
◾2.1.1 Armed Forces Security Agency (AFSA)
◦2.2 creation
◦2.3 known operations
•3 . Organization
◦3.1 staffing
◦3.2 organization chart
◦3.3 facilities
◾3.3.1 Germany
◾3.3.2 United States
◾3.3.3 France
•4 . description of the missions
◦4.1 collecting information by electromagnetic waves
◦4.2 infiltration of the Internet, computers and mobile phones
◦4.3 World individuals display and face recognition
◦4.4 treatment of information
◾4.4.1 supercomputers
◾4.4.2 quantum computer research
◦4.5 protection of information systems
•5 contributions to the economy and research
•6 directors
•7 in popular culture
◦7.1 . in fiction
◦7.2 nicknames
•8 annexes
◦8.1 bibliography
◾8.1.1 collections of declassified documents
◦8.2 filmography
◦8.3 related articles
◦8.4 external links
•9 notes and references
◦9.1 notes
◦9.2 references


The NSA/CSS is responsible for directing the activities of cryptology from the U.S. Government. Cryptology, according to its definition, includes two missions main3 :
•Signals Intelligence (SIGINT), i.e. electromagnetic intelligence ;
•Information Assurance (AI), the security of communications and data processing systems.

In practice, the NSA is the only collector and communications intelligence handler (intelligence coming from the interception of communications), the main (but not only) dealing with Foreign Instrumentation Signals Intelligence (FISINT), and coordinates the program ofElectronic Intelligence (ELINT) since 1958. The NSA is also responsible since the early 1980s of the formation of the Government to theOperations Security (OPSEC) services.

The NSA conducts theU.S. Cryptologic System (USCS)note 1 which includes entities of the U.S. Government the SIGINT and AI4. In addition to the NSA, the USCS includes the Service Cryptologic Components (CSC, ‘services cryptological components’, i.e. items loaded from the armed forces of the United StatesSIGINT)notes 2 and thousands of persons responsible for the SIGINT in various commands and military units around the world. The NSA also controls the operations of the Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) SIGINT and including their service joint clandestine collection of intelligence, the Special Collection Service (SCS)5 .



During the Second World War, electromagnetic (COMINT orCommunications Intelligence ) intelligence played an important role in the conduct of the war by the United States. « Services cryptological components » (elements of the armed forces of the United States responsible for listening and decrypting enemy communications) of theUS Army and theUS Navy won, together with their British counterparts, many successes against Japanese and German communications in operations Magic and Ultra. Combined with the DF (direction finding or DF), traffic analysis and exploitation of the text distributed in clear (non-encrypted), the COMINT provides lots of information6 .

The war drifted a certain culture marked by:
•the importance of the COMINT
•the need to maintain secrecy thereon so that the enemy knows not its codes were decrypted and continues to use them. This led to severely restrict the movement of information from the COMINT, at the risk of keeping away those in need7,note 3
•the need to focus significant human and material resources to attacking encryption systems complex. The United States and the United Kingdom had worked effectively against Enigma, but the rivalry between the Army and the Navy had led to a separate distribution of tasks between the two services.

German prisoners prepare the transportation of the Russian Fish « to England in June 1945.

Shortly before the end of the war, a Target Intelligence Committee (TICOM) was in charge of determining what had been the performance of cryptographic services of the countries of the axis, and avoid that means possible « do fall into unauthorized hands»8. One of his teams found the personnel and equipment of a German decryption service who had managed to intercept Soviet highest level transmitted by a multiplex said  » Russian Fish  » radiotélétype messages. This German work seems to have formed the basis of subsequent U.S. intercepts of Soviet radioteletypes9 .

U.S. and British officers to the signing of the agreement of cooperation BRUSA (future UKUSA) Washington, March 5, 1946

After the end of the war, the cryptological services were massively demobilized. Their staff passed from 37 000 at the time of the surrender of Japan at 7 500 in December 194510. The remaining staff attacked new targets: the Soviet Union, the Chinese Communists, the France and the Greece. In mid-1946, half of the reports of the U.S. Army CryptoLogic service were derived from the interception of communications French11. The US Army had established a section targeting the USSR from February 194312, and at the end of the war, more than 100 soldiers and nearly 200 sailors worked on Soviet communications. At this time, the Americans and the British concluded a verbal agreement of cooperation on this project, which was given the code name Bourbon. It is on this basis that was later built the UKUSA13agreement. Beginning in 1946, United States and British cryptologists managed to ‘break’ several major Soviet encryption systems. This year until early 1949, more than 12 500 of the Russian army and more than 21 000 messages of the Soviet Navy were decrypted14. At the same time, a separate operation, the Venona project, leads to the decryption of encrypted telegrams from the KGB sent several years previously, including revealing the existence of Soviet spies in the Manhattan Project and the  » Cambridge five « 15 .

But these advances were quickly countered by a series of changes in the systems and procedures for encryption Soviets from November 1947 and which culminated in 1948. Soviet system that the Americans and British décryptaient were changed one after the other. Although the disappearances of these systems is both over several months, and none took place this weekend, the American cryptanalysts called disaster ‘ Black Friday ‘ (‘Black Friday’)16. A number of important communications passed by cable instead of radio, outwitting the interceptions. On the remaining radio channels used to encrypt new machines were introduced, and security procedures were largely improved. It was a disaster for American intelligence, which it took six years to begin to recover the ground lost17 .

In the  » Black Friday  » has often been attributed by the elders of the NSA to William Weisband, a linguist of AFSA working on the Soviet problem, who was suspected in 1950 by the FBI of having been a Communist agent; the FBI was never able to determine if Weisband had passed information to the Soviets. His case caused a certain paranoia in the profession and contributed to the very restrictive attitude of the NSA in the dissemination of its information18 .

Armed Forces Security Agency (AFSA)

In 1947, the Army and the Navy were joined by a new army, theAir Force, which soon began to create its own service CryptoLogic19. During these years, several forces pushed towards a unification of the cryptological services: the Committee of the Congress on the Pearl Harbor attack, which recommended in 1946 such unification, cryptologists who felt the need to focus their resources reduced, and the Secretary of the army for financial reasons. After initial opposition from the Navy and the Air Force, the Secretary of Defense created the Armed Forces Security Agency (AFSA) may 20, 1949, and placed it under the command of the Joint Chiefs of Staff (JCS)20 .

The AFSA was created by transferring approximately 80% of the cryptological Army and Navy staff serving in the Washington area, limiting the latter the role of intelligence on the ground. But this structure left the stations of plays under the authority of the cryptological services, AFSA having only indirect authority over them. The service of the Air Force, he managed to stay almost independent service. The interservice rivalry led to duplication of efforts and lack of coordination. Finally, the fact that general decisions of AFSA should be voted unanimously to services led to a paralysis of the system. The AFSA was ineffective from the outset and was only a service CryptoLogic, without bringing the desired unification of the CryptoLogic system American21 .

As a result of the  » Black Friday « , AFSA concentrated on the operation of Soviet communications unencrypted low-level, which became the main source of intelligence on the Soviet Union and enjoyed a boom22,note 4. This expansion required a significant concentration on the Soviet Union, at the expense of other countries: in 1949, more than half of the staff working on the ‘Soviet problem’, and the number of people working on the Asian countries to AFSA had increased from 261 to 11223 .

When North Korea launched the war of Korea in June 1950, AFSA did person working on this country, and had neither a linguist nor a dictionary Koreans24 .


Badge of the NSA from 1963 to 1966 (previously, the NSA used the badge of the Department of Defense)1

An IBM 7950 Harvest specially created by the NSA; He served from 1962 to 1976 in this agency.

On October 24, 1952, the President Harry s. Truman signed a top secret classified memorandum that directs a reorganization of the activities of interception of telecommunications. The NSA is formally created on the orders of the Secretary of Defense on November 4, 1952 by renaming of AFSA25 .

The missions of the NSA are defined by National Security Council Intelligence Directive No. 6, depending on the needs and orders of the Director of national intelligence. Although it belongs to the Department of Defense, the NSA is for all of theIntelligence Community.

Unlike the CIA, based in a very formal way, the NSA remained very secret and its existence was officially recognized in 1957. This episode did earn NSA his first nickname,  » No. Such Agency  » (« such an agency does not exist ») by journalists.

Known operations

After the Second World War, the NSA has obtained systematically main business of telegraphy (global RCA, ITT World Communications and Western Union) access to messages circulating cable (project Shamrock26). The interception of telecommunications was initially by collecting hard copies of telegrams, followed by the delivery of tapes 27. According to US Senate Church Committee (1975), the NSA about selecting 150 000 messages per month, on a total of 6 million messages per month, to make a record (either 1 message on 4027). Thousands of messages were transferred to other agencies of intelligence for analysis27. Lew Allen, then Director of the NSA, acknowledged on August 8, 1975, before the commission Pike, that « the NSA [intercepted] systematically international calls, calls such as cable messages’27, including ‘messages sent to U.S. citizens or from them’28. NSA has organized a sabotage encryption of Swiss Crypto AG, systems allowing to read diplomatic message traffic and military coded more than 130 countries. The intervention of the NSA was via the owner-founder of the company, Boris Hagelin, and involves periodic visits of « consultants » Americans working for the NSA, including Nora L. Mackebee29 .

The Central Security Service (CSS) was created in 1972 to centralize the intelligence of electromagnetic origin of theatre activities performed by components cryptological of the armed forces of the United States (Service Cryptologic Components or CSC). During this reorganisation, the CSC were the US Army Security Agency, the US Naval Security Group and the U.S. Air Force Security Service30. In 2012, these CCS are theUS Fleet Cyber Command, the Director of Intelligence of theUS Marine Corps,United States Army Intelligence and Security Command, the U.S. Air Force Intelligence, Surveillance and Reconnaissance Agency, and the Deputy Assistant Commandant for Intelligence theUS Coast Guard31 .

Within the Department of Commerce of United States, the Office of Executive Support is loaded to key firms disseminate information obtained through the32 U.S. intelligence agencies.

The NSA, with various other Anglo-Saxon, allied countries under the UKUSATreaty, is at the origin of the system of spying on the communications level. Since the 1980s, this system is the primary source of information to the NSA. She has been accused, notably following a report by Duncan Campbell for the European Parliamentto deal also withindustrial espionage (including having fail two contracts Airbus).

The IVe amendment of the Constitution of the United States and the Foreign Intelligence Surveillance Act (FISA) of 1978 prohibits governmental agencies to spy on an American citizen without a warrant. However, it is sometimes difficult to determine, with a global system automated interception as level, if a communication is intended to an American citizen or not. To work around thee amendment IV, it has often said that the NSA could ask its foreign allies information requested on U.S. citizens, even if, in principle, this is also prohibited from the FISA and contrary to the UKUSA Treaty.

In 1991, 12 tons of cocaine belonging to the Cali cartel are captured through information provided by NSA33. In 1994, during the negotiations of the GATT between the United States and theEuropean Union, level have been used to know the position of the different countries of the European Union and the European Commission strategy.

In 2005, by order of the president of the United States George w. Bush, she proceeded to listen to a huge amount of telephone conversations (as well as recording information such as the date and the duration of the calls or telephone numbers involved), order is, according to some, not legally valid34. For the first time, these plays were calls originally or destined for the United States, which make them potentially illegal according to U.S. laws.

Main article: NSA electronic surveillance program.

In June 2009, NSA again undergoes a Congress of United States survey on its wiretapping practices: without supervision or judicial authorization, it would have intercepted several phone calls and several emails from citizens Americans35 .

In July 2009, the NSA has unveiled the project of construction of theUtah Data Center, a Center of data processing which the final cost is estimated at 1.6 billion of $36,37. Operational since September 2013, this interception of communications centre is described as the largest of the United States and probably the world38 .


Headquarters of the NSA, 14 November 201339

In 1974, a book entitled the CIA and the cult of intelligence indicates that it has 24 000 employees and a budget of 1.2 billion dollars (5.36 billion value 2011) and then is the second biggest behindAir Intelligence Agency40 U.S. Intelligence Agency.

According to some estimates, the NSA Headquarters uses to him only enough electricity to power four Earth Simulators (the most powerful computer known at the date of September 20, 2002).

Its budget for 2012 was 10.2 billion US$2on a national intelligence program amounting to 53 billion. This budget does not include the services the military cryptological, CIA – NSA joint programmes, and possible military intelligence programs.

Despite the fact that it is the largest employer of mathematicians, computer scientists and of electronic engineers in the world, it has a large number of computers, and a budget that exceeds even that of the CIA, the Agency has been remarkably quiet until recently.


The NSA workforce varied considerably during its history, typically increasing during periods of cold war tensions and decreasing during periods of relaxation. Its workforce have decreased with the end of the cold war then increased since the attacks of September 11, 2001.

In statistics, it is important to distinguish between direct employees of the NSA of the total including the cryptographic services of the various U.S. armed forces personnel:




8 760

33 010


12 120

72 56041


19 29042

88 60043


16 54242

41 00043


26 679 (1990)44

75 000 (1989)45


~ 21 500

~ 38 00046


21 650

35 0832

Organization chart

Organization chart of the NSA in 2001

NSA generally avoids to make public information about its internal organisation. Public Law 86-36 even lets him not be obliged to provide information not classified on his organization.

Originally, the NSA was organised in ‘functional lines. In 1956 it was reorganized into a geographic structure which kept the broad lines for the remainder of the cold war. Its Office of Production (PROD) was divided into four divisions operational47 :
•ADVA (Advanced Soviet): decryption of high-level Soviet figures
•PEOPLE (General Soviet): treatment of Soviet figures of middle and low level (mainly their content analysis)
•ACOM (Asian Communist): treatment of figures in the Asian Communist countries
•ALLO (All Others): treatment of other countries.

Following the defection of Martin and Mitchell in 1960, NSA services were renamed and reorganized. PROD became the Directorate of Operations (Directorate of operations, DO), responsible for the collection and treatment of the SIGINT), which was organized into several « groups » encoded by a letter and each with a specialization. Its main groups were48 :
•A Group (Soviet bloc)
•B Group (Asian Communist countries and Cuba)
•G Group (rest of world)

At his side existed the Directorate of Technology (DT), which developed new systems for the DO, the Directorate of Information Systems Security to protect the communications of the U.S. Government, the Directorate of Plans, Policy and Programs that served as staff of the Agency, and the Directorate of Support Services dealing with logistical and administrative functions.

In 1992, following the breakup of the Soviet Union, A Group was extended to cover the entire Europe and the former USSR, and the B Group absorbed the G Group to cover the rest of the49world. In 1997, another reorganization took place, leading to the creation of two groups which one was intended to be adapted to target transnational50 : M Group (Office of Geopolitical and Military Production) and the W Group (Office of Global Issues and Weapons Systems).

In February 2001, the NSA structure undergoes a new significant reorganization with the disappearance of existing directions since nearly half a century, replaced by two divisions specializing in the two main tasks of the NSA, the other services being centralized under the authority of the Director of the NSA or his Chief of staff51 : the Signals Intelligence Directorate (SID) and theInformation Assurance Directorate (IAD).

In 2013, the NSA is described as having five operational divisions, three operational centres and several administrative directions:
•Signals Intelligence Directorate (SID) responsible for the electromagnetic intelligence;
•Information Assurance Directorate (IAD) responsible for the security of information systems;
•Research Directorate (RD) searching;
•Technology Directorate (TD) development;
•Foreign Affairs Directorate (FAD), which oversees interactions with foreign intelligence services;
•National Security Operations Center (NSOC) which is the national centre for management of electronic intelligence and security crisis;
•NSA/CSS Threat Operations Center (NTOC), which is the main centre of alert on cyber security;
•NSA/CSS Commercial Solutions Center (NCSC) established to manage interactions with commercial companies and public research.

The Signals Intelligence Directorate is organized into three entities. The first is the Directorate for Data Acquisition with various offices collect raw information. The second is the Directorate for Analysis and Production is organised in « product lines » such as Counterterrorism Product Line on terrorism and whose role is to analyze the raw information to draw finished intelligence. The third is theEnterprise commitment Mission Management (E2M2, formerly called Directorate for Customer Relationships) which disseminates this last52 .



This section is empty, insufficiently detailed or incomplete. Your help is welcome!

NSA has facilities in Berlin, Frankfurt, Stuttgart, Wiesbaden, Griesheim and Bad Aibling53 .

United States

The NSA Headquarters is located since 1954 at Fort George g. Meade, 9800 Savage Road, Maryland, United States, on a military base of theUS Army to approximately 16 kilometres northeast of Washington. It has its own exit on the Baltimore-Washington Parkway, signposted  » NSA: Employees Only  » (« reserved for employees of the NSA »).

Fort Meade is also the headquarters of other entities including the Defense Media Activity, the Defense Information Systems Agency, the defence Courier Service and the US Cyber Command. About 11 000 military, 29 000 civilian employees and 6 000 families reside there54. The whole formed by the complex of buildings of the NSA at Fort Meade and NSA facilities in the State of Maryland is called NSA/CSS Washington (NSAW)55. In January 2001, 13 475 civilian employees worked at the56 NSAW.

Headquarters of the NSA at Fort George g. Meade, Maryland, United States.

Road sign indicating output to NSA Headquarters.

The U.S. CryptoLogic system is organized around four so-called major cryptological Global Net-centric Cryptologic Centers57 centres :
•NSA/CSS Georgia (NSAG) at Fort Gordon in Georgia
•NSA/CSS Texas (NSAT) or Texas Cryptology Center (TCC) at Lackland Air Force Base, Texas
•NSA/CSS Hawaii, Kunia, Hawaii (NSAH)
•NSA/CSS Colorado (CASS) at Buckley Air Force Base, Colorado

These centres deal with the intercepted communications in various ways, by listening located abroad, satellite, or posts since September 11 of listening inside the United States58 posts.

The data should be stored in a data processing centre under construction at Camp Williams in Utah, named Intelligence Community Comprehensive National Cybersecurity Initiative (CNCI IC) Data Center or Utah Data Center , which should be completed in October 201359 .

The NSA has a supercomputer for cryptanalysis program in the Multi-Program Research Facility (MPRF) or Building 5300 from the Oak Ridge national laboratory60 .

Cryptologic Service Groups (CSG) under the authority of the Director of the NSA are used to interface with the military commands to provide SIGINT support.


This section is empty, insufficiently detailed or incomplete. Your help is welcome!

Description of the missions

Collection of information by electromagnetic waves

Main article: electromagnetic intelligence.

The NSA uses or has used many means of intelligence gathering: interception of communications HF using ground antennas (FLR-9 « elephant cage »), of communications type VHF/microwave from planes and spy satellites, listening to undersea cables using DVR systems filed by submarines, allowed access by operators of telecommunications to their traffic, and clandestine methods.

At the beginning of the NSA, communications were dominated by the HFairwaves, primarily in morse or radiotélétype. The high frequency propagation allows communications at great distance despite the presence of obstacles or beyond the horizon. Consequently, the signals of a HF transmitter can be streamed at considerable distance from a secure base. One of the first efforts of the cold war was to build websites to listen around the Soviet Union61. Used aerials were generally rhombic antennas, connected to analog receivers. The frequency display made its appearance on receptors in the 1960s62 .

Infiltration of the Internet, computers and mobile phones

In 2013, the revelations ofEdward Snowden highlight the electronic surveillance and collection of metadata operations on a large scale on the Internet. The surveillance of American citizens divided the legal community in the United States, as Orwellian by a judge in Washington and legal as a judge of the Federal Court of New York63. According to one observer, « this new twist increases the likelihood that the question of the legality of the program by the American safety agency is, ultimately, decided by the Court supreme63 ». In February 2014, the New York Times reveals that an American Office of lawyers has been spied on while representing a foreign country in a trade dispute with the United States. the spying operation was conducted through the Australia on behalf of the NSA64 .

The NSA has also captured communications from the leaders of allies, including Angela Merkel, François Hollande , and Dilma Rousseff. Since February 2013, using the program called QuantumInsert, the NSA was able to penetrate into the computer network managing the SEA-ME-WE 4 submarine cable that routes telephone and internet communications from Marseilles to North Africa, the Gulf countries and65Asia. January 16, 2014, the Orangesociety, which is one of the 16 companies managing this network, announces that she will focus complaint against X for facts « to access and maintain fraudulent in an automated data processing system »66. Belgacom, a Belgian telecommunications operator, has also massively hacked, as well as the computer of its consultant in cryptography, the Professor67 Quisquater.

Using Feed through, Gourmet through and Jet plowreferred to as tools, the NSA has also managed to insert ‘implants’ in servers from different manufacturers, including Cisco, Dell , and Huawei68. Among many other tools, is mentioned: Dropout jeep, that allows to retrieve information in an iPhone. Monkey calendar sends SMS geolocation of the phone on which it is installed; Rage master captures information transmitted to the computer screen by VGA cable. NSA engineers also analyze the error reports automatically sent by the Windows operating system to determine the specific weaknesses of a computer by the service. The Agency also intercepted new computers before their delivery to install systems spies68 .

Extremely critical reactions that these practices of espionage were raised in affected countries, president Obama announced, on January 17, 2014, some measures69 of framing in the metadata collection program, which will now only be possible on authorization of a judge. He asked the NSA to stop spying on leaders of70 allied countries including.

These measures cover however only a tiny part of the NSA activities and do not call into question the Bullrun, aimed to weaken encryption technologies program general public70. January 18, 2014, Obama said that the Agency will « continue to focus on the intentions of Governments around the world », but that this should not worry about71allied countries. This speech disappoints MEPswho ask to hear Edward72 Snowden.

In June 2014, Obama is committed to amend the US Privacy Act to extend to European citizens the degree of protection of privacy enjoyed by citizens Americans73 .

Global registration of individuals and facial recognition

For reasons of prevention of terrorism, the NSA would have spied data among global operators such as Google or Yahoo. These allegations have been refuted by the Director of the NSA, which underlines that this kind of operation would be illegal,74,75 .

The NSA would daily collect some 55 000 pictures of individuals to develop a huge database and refine a facial recognition software to recognize and identify with any degree of precision the face of any individual on photos or videos76,77 .

Treatment of information


To decrypt the messages that it receives, the NSA needs significant computing power. That is why it has a large number of supercomputers for which participates in the research and development.

The Cray X-MP/24, supercomputer used by the NSA from 1983 to 1993 and now exposed at the National Cryptologic Museum78 .
The NSA supercomputer (2002)79

Type of computer

(in gigaFlops)

Cray T3E-1200E LCD

2 280.00

Cray T3E-900 LC1324

1 191,60

Cray SVI-18/576 (-4Q 02)

1 152.00

SGI 2800/250-2304

1 152.00

HP SuperDome/552-512

1 130.50

Cray T3E-1350 LC800

1 080,00

SGI 3800/400-1064


Cray T3E-1200E LC540


Cray T3E-1200E LC540


Cray T3E-1200E LC540


Cray T3E-1200 LC404


Cray T3E-1200 LC284


Cray X 1-6/192 (+ 1 Q 03)

1 966,08


13 572.98

The secret nature of the NSA, it is difficult to check the veracity of this information.

Quantum computer research

The NSA finances or proposed to finance various projects of research into quantum computer, up to80University of Orsaylaboratories. In 2014, the revelations of Edward Snowden confirmed that the NSA is trying to build a machine to decipher universal thanks to a quantum computer, whose computing power would be incommensurate with the computers current81 .

Protection of information systems

The NSA also has role protecting government information systems and information U.S.82 .

As part of its securing computers of the Government of the United States, the NSA has contributed to several free software by providing several patchesfor Linux (Security-Enhanced Linux) and OpenBSD.

As a result of the National Strategy to Secure Cyberspace launched in 2003, the NSA collaborates with the Department of Homeland Security to encourage research and innovation in cyber security. The NSA in partnership with the Mitre Corporation, the National Institute of Standards and Technology and companies including Symantec, McAfee, and Intel, encourages companies of information technology to use the Security Content Automation Protocols (SCAP) to automate the assessment and management of systems vulnerabilities. From 2005, the NSA has worked with Microsoft to define features of security on Windows XP, Vista, Internet Explorer and the Microsoft Firewall. The NSA has also helped define the security of Windows 783 guide.

Contributions to the economy and research

The NSA has participated in the research, development and industrialization of many sectors related to its activities.

For example, the NSA has participated in the development of the first supercomputer designed by Seymour Cray in 197784 and in the 1980s, when U.S. electronic companies will choose to use almost exclusively so more competitive Japanese components, she decided to make herself, with the help of National Semiconductor, the components necessary for its own computers85 .

In September 2011, the NSA has bequeathed one of these ‘database system’, Accumulo,86 Apache Foundation.


The Director of theArmed Forces Security Agency (AFSA) was the predecessor of the Director of the NSA between 1949 and 1952.
•May 1949 – July 1951: RADM Earl e. Stone (en), USN
•July 1951 – November 1952: LTG Ralph j. Canine, USA

The Director of the NSA is also head of the Central Security Service (CSS) and Commander of the United States Cyber Command (USCYBERCOM), since their respective creations in 1971 and 2010.

Michael s. Rogers, current Director of the NSA
•November 1952 – November 1956: LTG Ralph j. Canine, USA
•November 1956 – November 1960: Lt Gen John a. Samford, USAF
•November 1960 – January 1962: VADM Laurence h. Frost, USN
•January 1962 – June 1965: Lt Gen Gordon a. Blake, USAF
•June 1965 – August 1969: LTG Marshall s. Carter, USA
•August 1969 – August 1972: VADM Noel Gayler , USN
•August 1972 – August 1973: Lt Gen Samuel c. Phillips , USAF
•August 1973 – July 1977: Lt Gen Lew Allen USAF
•July 1977 – April 1981: VADM Bobby Ray Inman, USN
•April 1981 – may 1985: Lt Gen Lincoln d. Faurer, USAF
•May 1985 – August 1988: LTG William e. Odom, USA
•August 1988 – May 1992: VADM William o. Studeman , USN
•May 1992 – February 1996: VADM Mike McConnell, USN
•February 1996 – March 1999: Lt Gen Kenneth a. Minihan, USAF
•March 1999 – April 2005: Lt Gen Michael V. Hayden, USAF
•April 2005 – March 2014: GAL Keith b. Alexander, USA
•April 2014 – today: ADM Michael s. Rogers, USN

Richard Ledgett, Director Assistant of the NSA

The Deputy Director (deputy director) of the NSA is typically a civilian career.
•August 1956: Mr. Joseph H. Ream
•October 1957:Dr. H. T. Engstrom
•August 1958:Dr. Louis W. Tordella
•April 1974: Mr. Benson. K. Buffham
•May 1978: Mr. Robert E. Drake
•April 1980: Mme Ann z. Caracristi
•July 1982: Mr. Robert E. Rich
•July 1986: Mr. Charles R. Lord
•March 1988: Mr. Gerald R. Young
•July 1990: Mr. Robert L. Prestel
•February 1994: Mr. William P. Crowell
•October 1997:Mrs. Barbara A. McNamara
•June 2000: Mr. William B. Black, Jr. 87
•August 2006: Mr. John C. Inglis88
•January 2014: Richard Ledgett

In popular culture

The NSA has been awfully quiet during its existence. However, it is more widely known since the end of the 1990s, as well aslevel. The NSA, the collaboration according to the UKUSA Pact and the Echelon network are often confused by the public.

In fiction

The NSA is more frequently cited in fictional works, replacing the CIA, perhaps too famous to attract the audience. However, most of these works exaggerate the role of NSA, among others by neglecting the fact that the NSA is concerned only with electromagnetic intelligence (SIGINT), and that it is CIA which is responsible for covert operations and human intelligence (HUMINT).
•The film Les Experts (Sneakers, 1992), Phil Alden Robinson, is one of the first to evoke the NSA agents. It is also mentioned in Good Will Hunting (1997).

Subsequently, the apparitions of the NSA are becoming very common. Examples among the most prominent:
•In the comic book XIII, NSA is cited for the first time in the Three watches of silver album (Volume 11, 1995), but, led by his Machiavellian Director Frank Giordino, its agents take a leading role from the volume 13 (1999).
•In 1998, two films, Enemy of State and Code Mercury, evoke the NSA, under a little positive vision (the Agency appears out of control and seeks to kill persons threatening his decryption work).
•The television series Numb3rs where the main character, the mathematician Charlie Eppes, is itself consultant to the NSA.
•The television series 24 hours chrono (season 2, 2002), and also in season 8, where after an attack against the agency anti-terrorist CTU (which is disabled), Jack Bauer appealed to the NSA.
•The film die another day, where Halle Berry plays an agent of the NSA (2002).
•The science fiction novel by Dan Brown, Digital Fortress, which involves the section of the NSA cryptology.
•XXX movie where Vin Diesel plays Xander Cage, an atypical agent of the NSA (2002).
•The video game Splinter Cell (from 2003 series)
•The television series Jake 2.0 (from 2003) where Jake works for the NSA. Although this is pure fiction, there is the NSA and its headquarters.
•The television series seven days, where the hero journey back in time.
•The television series Prison Break, where an NSA analyst retrieves a telephone conversation of President Caroline Reynolds with brother Terrence Steadman.
•The television series Burn Notice where the NSA and CSS are mentioned several times.
•The television series Commander in Chief, where the NSA appears a few times with the main character, the fictional President of the United States; It is also very often mentioned during the 18 episodes of the series.
•In the video game 007: double or quits, agent Mya Starling is an NSA agent.
•The video game Deus Ex , where one can find good number of references to the NSA.
•The novel Phaenomen by Erik l’homme, in which there are excerpts of the world under supervision, by Phil Riverton (author and imaginary artwork but real information).
•The television series Stargate SG-1, where it is often refers to the NSA satellites used for search of Goa’uld hidden on Earth.
•The television series Chuck, where Chuck Bartowski is accompanied by John Casey, an NSA agent.
•In the TV series the return of K 2000 (Knight Rider 2008), the Knight Industries Research Centre and development has many relationships with the NSA (databases for example), including project K.A.R.R. Thus the agent Carrie Rivai has to father a retired NSA agent.
•In the video game Perfect Dark, Trent Easton is the Director of the NSA, it is responsible for protecting the president of the United States.
•In the Simpsons, the film, the NSA intercepts a communication between Homer and margin, the family being sought by the Government.
•In the movie Echelon Conspiracy, the Echelon network is used to send messages to mobile phones anonymously.


The NSA has received a large number of nicknames, especially due to its very large discretion:
•SIGINT City, as commonly used in the world of U.S. intelligence;
•Crypto City (« City » of cryptology) ;
•The Puzzle Palace, title of one of the first books written on the NSA;
•No Such Agency (« Such an agency does not exist’);
•Never Say Anything (« Never say nothing » or « Say nothing »).


On other Wikimedia projects:
•National Security Agency , on Wikimedia Commons
•National Security Agency, on Wikinews


Document utilisé pour la rédaction de l’article : document used as a source for the drafting of this article.
•(en) James Bamford , The Puzzle Palace: Inside the National Security Agency, America’s Most Secret Intelligence Organization , New York, Penguin Books, 1983 (1re ed. 1982), 655 p. (ISBN 0-14-006748-5 and 978-0-14-006748-4 ))
•(en)Thomas R.Johnson, American Cryptology during the Cold War, 1945-1989 Document utilisé pour la rédaction de l’article : Story internal NSA during the cold war in four volumes:
◦(en) Thomas R. Johnson , American Cryptology during the Cold War, 1945-1989 , vol. i.: The Struggle for Centralization, 1945-1960 Fort Meade, Center for Cryptologic History, National Security Agency, 1995 (online ))
◦(en) Thomas R. Johnson , American Cryptology during the Cold War, 1945-1989 , vol. II: Centralization Wins, 1960-1972 Fort Meade, Center for Cryptologic History, National Security Agency, 1995 (online ))
◦(en) Thomas R. Johnson , American Cryptology during the Cold War, 1945-1989 , vol. III: Retrenchment and Reform, 1972-1980 Fort Meade, Center for Cryptologic History, National Security Agency, 1998 (online ))
◦(en) Thomas R. Johnson , American Cryptology during the Cold War, 1945-1989 , vol.IV: Cryptologic Rebirth, 1981-1989Fort Meade, Center for Cryptologic History, National Security Agency, 1999 (read online)
•« No Such Agency « , series of six articles on the NSA published in December 1995:

1 (en) Scott Shane and Tom Bowman, « America’s Fortress of Spies », The Baltimore Sun, December 3, 1995 (read online)

2 (en) Scott Shane and Tom Bowman , « « . A Strange and Secret Workplace « » , The Baltimore Sun 5 December 1995

3 (en) Tom Bowman and Scott Shane, « Espionage from the Front Lines », The Baltimore Sun, December 8, 1995 (read online)

4 (en) Scott Shane and Tom Bowman,, « Rigging the Game », The Baltimore Sun, December 10, 1995 (read online)

5 (en) Scott Shane and Tom Bowman, « Catching Americans in NSA’s Net », The Baltimore Sun, December 12, 1995 (read online)

6 (en) Tom Bowman and Scott Shane, « Battling high -tech Warriors », The Baltimore Sun, December 15, 1995 (read online)
•(en) James Bamford , Body of Secrets: Anatomy of the Ultra-Secret National Security Agency , New York, Anchor Books, 2002 (1re ed. 2001), 426 p. (ISBN 0-385-49907-8 and 0-385-49908-6 )) Document utilisé pour la rédaction de l’article
•(en) Matthew M. Aid , « « . The National Security Agency and the Cold War « » , Intelligence and National Security , vol. 16,No. 1, summer 2001, pp. 27-66 (ISSN 1743-9019 and 0268-4527) (special themed Secrets of Signals Intelligence during the Cold War and Beyond, also published as (en) Matthew M. Aid and Cees Wiebes, Secrets of Signals Intelligence during the Cold War and Beyond, Abingdon/New York, Frank Cass Publishers, al. «») (« Studies in intelligence », 2001 (ISBN 0-7146-5176-1 and 0-7146-8182-2), chap. 2, pp. 27-66, same chapters and even paging)
•(en) James Bamford, The Shadow Factory: The Ultra-Secret NSA from 9/11 to the Eavesdropping on America, Doubleday, New York, 2008(ISBN 978-0-385-52132-1)(reissue Anchor, 2009, (ISBN 978-0-307-27939-2 ))))
•(en) Matthew M. Aid , The Secret Sentry: The Untold History of the National Security Agency , New York, Bloomsbury Press, 2010 (1re ed. 2009), 426 p. (ISBN 978-1-60819-096-6 )) Document utilisé pour la rédaction de l’article
•(en) Matthew M. Aid , ‘ The Troubled Inheritance: The National Security Agency and the Obama Administration» , in Loch K. Johnson, The Oxford Handbook of National Security Intelligence New York, Oxford University Press, 2010 (ISBN 978-0-19-537588-6 )) Document utilisé pour la rédaction de l’article

Collections of declassified documents
•Declassification Initiatives from NSA website
•The National Security Agency Declassified on the site of National Security Archive
•Electronic Surveillance: From the Cold War to Al-Qaeda on the site of the National Security Archive
•The Secret Sentry Declassified on the site of the National Security Archive
•National Security Agency Tasked with Targeting Adversaries’ Computers for Attack Since Early 1997, According to Declassified Document on the site of the National Security Archive
•National Security Agency: Resources from the Federation of American Scientists on the site of the Federation of American Scientists
•Department of Defense (DoD) Documents on the site

•NSA, the shadow agency (2008) [The Spy Factory], documentary film by James Bamford (en) and Scott Willis (en), PBS, February 3, 2009, broadcast on Arte on January 10, 2010

Related articles

Intelligence programs:
•Venona project
•Project Shamrock
•Operation Gold
•Project Minaret
•The NSA electronic surveillance program
•Boundless informing

Information security:
•Data Encryption Standard
•Clipper chip
•Advanced Encryption Standard
•Secure Hash Algorithm
•Perfect Citizen

•Global monitoring
•Zendian problem
•Dundee Society
•Crypto AG
•National Cryptologic Museum

Information partners under the UKUSA Treaty services:
•GCHQ for the United Kingdom;
•CSTC for the Canada;
•DSD for the Australia;
•GCSB for the New Zealand;

External links
•(en) Official site
•(en) Security for GNU/Linux supported by NSA Security-Enhanced Linux module
•(en) Foreign Intelligence Surveillance Act « , the daily Le Monde survey
•(en) Dive in the ‘Octopus’ of Internet surveillance by the NSA Maxime Vaudano, Le Monde, last updated October 21, 2013
•(en) How the NSA watches you, synthesis of the revelations of Edward Snowden (video 4 minutes and 21 seconds) – Olivier Clairouin, Maxime Vaudano and Martin Untersinger – Le Monde, October 21, 2013

Notes and references

1.↑ The term US Cryptologic System replaces the US SIGINT System (USSS) even though the two are not strictly equivalent, the USSS covering only the mission of SIGINT but not Information Assurance ((en) Maritime SIGINT Architecture Technical Standards Handbook, version 1.0, March 1999, [read online], p. 88)
2.↑ Service Cryptologic Components (CSC) have changed several times names in their history:
Service Cryptologic Components (SCC)

U.S. Army

U.S. Navy

US Air Force

Signal Intelligence Service (SIS), Signal Corps (1938-1943)

Communications Intelligence Organization (OP-20-G) (1942-1946)

Air Force Security Group (AFSG) (1948)

Signal Security Agency (SSA), Signal Corps (1943-1945)

Communications Supplementary Activities (OP-20-2) (1946-1950)

Air Force Security Service (USAFSS, AFSS) (1948-1979)

Army Security Agency (ASA then from 1957 USASA) (1945-1976)

Navy Security Group (OP-202) (1950)

Electronic Security Command (ESC) (1979-1991)

Intelligence and Security Command (INSCOM) (since 1976)

Naval Security Group (NAVSECGRU) (1950-1968)

Air Force Intelligence Command (AFIC) (1991-1993)

Naval Security Group Command (NAVSECGRU) (1968-2005)

Air Intelligence Agency (AIA) (1993-2007)

Naval Network Warfare Command (NETWARCOM) (2005-2010)

Air Force Intelligence, Surveillance and Reconnaissance Agency (AF ISR Agency) (since 2007)

US Fleet Cyber Command (since 2010)

3 Previously, these services were called Service Cryptologic Agencies (SCA) and Service Cryptologic Elements (SCE).

4 For a more detailed list see Records of the National Security Agency/Central Security Service (NSA/CSS).

5 The US Marine Corps and theUnited States Coast Guard have also crytologiques, entrusted to the U.S. Marine Corps Director of Intelligence (DIRINT) and US Coast Guard Deputy Assistant Commandant for Intelligence respectively ((en)  » Central Security Service (CSS) « , (consulted the August 2, 2013 )))).
6.↑ The code name Ultra, although often used to denote the operation of Enigma decryption, was in fact a special classification of information from this activity. In the same vein, American services use a series of code names to classify information from the SIGINT in addition to the normal classifications (confidential, secret, top secret): Special Intelligence (SI), Handle via COMINT Channels Only (CCO), Moray, Delta, Gamma, Spoke, Umbra, Zarf (indicating the resulting SIGINT satellites), Very Restricted Knowledge (VRK), etc. (National Reconnaissance Office Review and drafting Guide for Automatic Declassification of 25-Year Old Information p. 9-10)
7.↑ Branch responsible for this analysis, AFSA-213, was totally composed of African-Americans. At the time, AFSA and the NSA, segregation was the norm, like the rest of the army and the United States. (Jeannette Williams and Yolande Dickerson, The Invisible Cryptologists.)

1.↑ a and b (en) ‘ History of The Insignia ‘,, site of the NSA, January 15, 2009 (consulted the August 7, 2013 )).
2.↑ a, b, c and d (en) FY 2013 Congressional Budget Justification, Volume I: National Intelligence Program Summary, February 2012, [read online] p. 135, 137
3.↑ (en)  » NSA/CSS Mission, Vision, Values « , on, site of the NSA, 10 January 2013 (consulted the August 26, 2013 ))
4.↑ (en) Joint and National Intelligence Support to Military Operations, Joint Publication 2-01, 5 January 2012, [read online] ECR II-16
5.↑ (en) Matthew M. Aid, « The Troubled Inheritance: The National Security Agency and the Obama Administration ‘ at p. 243
6.↑ (en) Thomas r. Johnson, American Cryptology during the Cold War, 1945-1989, vol.I, p. 1
7.↑ (en) Matthew M. Aid, The Secret Sentry p. 4
8.↑ (en) European Axis Signal Intelligence in World War II as Revealed by ‘TICOM’ Investigations and by Other Prisoner of War Interrogations and Captured Material, Principally German vol. I: Synopsis Washington, Army Security Agency, 1er May 1946 (read online) p. 2-3
9.↑ (en) James Bamford, Body of Secrets , pp. 15-17, 20. For more details, see the page Russian FISH site TICOM Archive and pages German exploitation of Soviet multichannel radio-teletype networks 1936-1945 and American exploitation of Soviet multichannel radio-teletype networks 1946-1956 blog Christos military and intelligence corner. Cette capture avait été rapportée précédemment dans (en) Thomas Parrish, The Ultra Americans : The U.S. Role in Breaking the Nazi Codes, New York, Stein & Day,‎ 1986 (ISBN 0-8128-3072-5 et 978-0-8128-3072-9), chap. 14 et (en) Nigel West, Venona: The Greatest Secret of the Cold War, Harper Collins, Londres, 2000 ( ISBN 0-00-653071-0) p. 32 The  » Russian Fish  » nickname comes from the fact that it was an encrypted radiotélétype, just like the German machines Fish.
10.↑ (en) Matthew M. Aid, The Secret Sentry p. 8-9, 319
11.↑ (en) Thomas r. Johnson, American Cryptology during the Cold War, 1945-1989, vol.I, 1945-1989, vol. I, p. 10
12.↑ (en) Robert Louis Benson and Cecil J.Phillips, History of Venona, Ft. George G. Meade, Center for Cryptologic History, 1995 (read online) p. 8
13.↑ (en) Thomas r. Johnson, American Cryptology during the Cold War, 1945-1989, vol.I, p. 159
14.↑ (en) Matthew M. Aid, The Secret Sentry p. 16
15.↑ (en) Thomas r. Johnson, American Cryptology during the Cold War, 1945-1989, vol.I, p. 160-168
16.↑ (en) Jeannette Williams and Yolande Dickerson, The Invisible Cryptologists: African-Americans, WWII to 1956 Center for Cryptologic History, National Security Agency, 2001 (read online) p. 19 (the cited source is Thomas R. Johnson, American Cryptology during the Cold War, 1945-1989, vol. ) I, p. 168, source that is, it almost entirely censored by the NSA, including the passages quoted in The Invisible Cryptologists). David has. Hatch and Robert Louis Benson , The Korean War: The SIGINT Background Fort Meade, Center for Cryptologic History, 2000 (online ))
17.↑ (en) Matthew M. Aid, The Secret Sentry p. 18 – 19
18.↑ (en) Thomas r. Johnson, American Cryptology during the Cold War, 1945-1989, vol.I, p. 277-278
19.↑ (en) Thomas r. Johnson, American Cryptology during the Cold War, 1945-1989, vol.I, pp. 10-11
20.↑ (en) Thomas r. Johnson, American Cryptology during the Cold War, 1945-1989, vol.I, pp. 23-26
21.↑ (en) Thomas r. Johnson, American Cryptology during the Cold War, 1945-1989, vol.I, p. 26-30
22.↑ (en) Jeannette Williams and Yolande Dickerson, The Invisible Cryptologists, p. 17-19
23.↑ (en) Matthew M. Aid, The Secret Sentry p. 22
24.↑ (en) Thomas r. Johnson, American Cryptology during the Cold War, 1945-1989, vol.I, p. 39
25.↑ (en) Thomas l. Burns, The Origins of the National Security Agency, 1940-1952 , Fort Meade, Center for Cryptologic History, National Security Agency, 1990 (read online), p. 107-108
26.↑ Duncan Campbell, Global Electronic Surveillance, ed. Allia, 2001 (translation of the IC 2000 to the STOAreport), p. 36
27.↑ a, b, c and d Duncan Campbell, Global Electronic Surveillance, p. 37
28.↑ Duncan Campbell, Global Electronic Surveillance, p. 38
29.↑ (en) Scott Shane and Tom Bowman, «Rigging the Game»
30.↑ (en) Thomas r. Johnson, American Cryptology during the Cold War, 1945-1989, vol.III, pp. 59-65
31.↑ (en)  » Central Security Service (CSS) « , on (consulted the August 2, 2013 ))
32.↑ Claude Delesse, of the Echelon network to the revolution of business intelligence to the United States, site of the french Ministry of Foreign Affairs.
33.↑ (en) Scott Shane and Tom Bowman,  » America’s Fortress Of Spies »
34.↑ (en) James Risen and Eric Lichtblau , « « . Bush Lets U.S. Spy on Callers Without Courts « » , The New York Times December 16, 2005 (online ))
35.↑ (en) James Risen and Eric Lichtblau , « « . E-Mail Surveillance Renews Concerns in Congress « » , The New York Times June 16, 2009 (online ))
36.↑ (en) Rich Miller, « « . NSA Plans $1.6 Billion Utah Data Center « » , Data Center Knowledge 1St July 2009 (read online)
37.↑ (en) By Matthew d. LaPlante, « New NSA center unveiled in budget documents », The Salt Lake Tribune, July 2, 2009 (read online)
38.↑ Philippe Bernard,  » in the heart of Utah, the United States deploy their ‘big ears’ « , Le Monde, June 12, 2013 (consulted the 9 February 2014 ))
39.↑ Trevor Paglen, « New Photos of the NSA and Other Top Intelligence Agencies Revealed for First Time », The Intercept February 10, 2014 (online ))
40.↑ Victor Marchetti and John D. Marks , The CIA and the cult of intelligence [« The CIA and the Cult of Intelligence »], Robert Laffont, coll. ‘Our time’, 1er February 1975, 363 p. (ISBN 2-221-03061-3)
41.↑ (en) Thomas r. Johnson, American Cryptology during the Cold War, 1945-1989, vol.I, p. 64
42.↑ has and b (en) Thomas r. Johnson, American Cryptology during the Cold War, 1945-1989, vol.III, p. 21
43.↑ has and b (en) Thomas r. Johnson, American Cryptology during the Cold War, 1945-1989, vol.IV, p. 271
44.↑ (en) Thomas r. Johnson, American Cryptology during the Cold War, 1945-1989, vol.IV, p. 273
45.↑ (en) Matthew M. Aid, The Secret Sentry p. 190
46.↑ Numbers derived from (en) ‘ Intelligence Agency Budgets: Commission Recommends No. Release purpose Releases Them Anyway », on (site of the Federation of American Scientists), 14 March 1996 (consulted the 29 July 2014) , « FAS Improved Figure 13.2 ‘ for the total number and »FAS Improved Figure 9-2″for the NSA workforce.
47.↑ (en) Thomas r. Johnson, American Cryptology during the Cold War, 1945-1989, vol.I, p. 239-241; the meaning of the words is given in (en) James Bamford, Body of Secrets, p. 42
48.↑ (en) James Bamford, Body of Secrets p. 93
49.↑ (en) « National Security Agency » , Federation of American Scientists on (consulted the August 26, 2013) , from (en) Bill Gertz , « « . Electronic Spying Reoriented at NSA « » , The Washington Times January 27, 1992 . See also (en) Matthew M. Aid, « All Glory is Fleeting: Sigint and the Fight Against International Terrorism », Intelligence and National Security, vol. 18,No. 4, winter 2003, pp. 72 – 120 (ISSN 1743-9019 and 0268-4527) (note 32).
50.↑ (en) James Bamford, Body of Secrets , p. 500 This reorganization had previously unveiled in « « . One NSA global and transnational « », Intelligence Online, no 324, 4 December 1997 (read online) . The Director of the W Group in 1997 was Michael S. Green; the M Group was led by Jeanne Y. Zimmer in the year 2000. Two partial organigrams of the NSA dating from 1998 has been declassified:
◦NSA Operations Directorate « America’s most valued source of intelligence », November 6, 1998[read online]
◦partial chart obtained by FOIA by the newspaper Defense Information and Electronics Report, 18 December 1998[read online]
51.↑ (en) Vernon Loeb, « NSA Reorganization ‘, The Washington Post, 19 December 2000 ; Transition 2001, document briefing from the NSA/CSS, December 2000, p. 3 [read online] ; the date of February 2001 for the implementation of directions comes from (en) Report of the US Senate Select Committee on Intelligence and U.S. House Permanent Select Committee on Intelligence, Joint Inquiry into Intelligence Community Activities before and after the Terrorist Attacks of September 112001, Senate Report No. 107-351/House Report No. 107-792, 107th Congress, 2d Session, December 2002 (ISBN 978-1-4142-5830-0), [read online], p. 374 and Appendix Counterterrorism Organizations Within The Intelligence Community (As of December 31, 2002) p. 3
52.↑ (en) Jeffrey T. Richelson , The US Intelligence Community Boulder, Colorado, Westview Press, 2008, 5e ed. (1re ed. 1985), 592 p. (ISBN 0-8133-4362-3 and 978-08133-4362-4) p. 32 ; (en) Marc Ambinder, « An Educated Guess About How the NSA Is Structured » , on The, 14 August 2013 (consulted the September 17, 2013) ; (en) Matthew M. Aid, « Updated NSA Order of Battle » , on blog 25 August 2013 (consulted the September 17, 2013 ))
53.↑ New NSA Revelations: Inside Snowden’s Germany File, Der Spiegel .
54.↑ (en) About Fort Meade [read online (page consulted June 19, 2012)]
55.↑ (en) Information Security Policy (DC322), memorandum (U) Number of NSA Employees (Office of Policy), 14 March 2001, p. 1 [online ]]
56.↑ (en) NSA/CSS Classification Manual, 123-2, Annex F « changes and revisions », [read online] , p. 1. Another document talks about him about 22 000 civilian employees of the NSA at Fort Meade: (en) Advanced Infrastructure Management Technologies (AIMTech), Integrated Solid Waste Management Plan: Fort George G. Meade, Maryland, Oak Ridge, Tennessee, January 2002, p. 29 [read online]
57.↑ Summary DO’s and DON’ Ts
58.↑ (en) James Bamford, « Inside the Matrix », Wired, April 2012, p. 78 (read online)
59.↑ (en) Utah’s $1.5 billion cyber-security center under way
60.↑ (en) James Bamford, « Inside the Matrix » ; NSA Decryption Multipurpose Research Facility
61.↑ (en) Thomas r. Johnson, American Cryptology during the Cold War, 1945-1989, vol.I, pp. 111-112
62.↑ (en) David P.Mowry, « Collection and Processing at NSA », CryptoLogic Almanac 50th Anniversary Series , Fort Meade, Center for Cryptologic History, July-August 2003 (read online)
63.↑ a and b Le Nouvel Observateur, 27 December 2013, monitoring: the « legal » for a NSA program judge New York
64.↑ (in) The New York Times, February 15, 2014, Spying by N.O.S. Ally Entangled U.S. Law Firm
65.↑ Mediapart, 29 December 2013, the American NSA hacked Orange
66.↑ Mediapart, 16 January 2014, the NSA has managed to hack the heart of the Internet
67.↑ The free Belgium, 1er February 2014, the Belgian spied by the NSA encryption
68.↑ a and b Le Monde, December 30, 2013, the interception of parcels to the screen, inventory of tools of the NSA spying
69.↑ (en)full text of the speech of Obama
70.↑ a and b The world, January 17, 2014, reform of the NSA: the United States promise the end of Allied leaders listens
71.↑ Le Monde, January 18, 2014, Obama warns that the NSA will continue to spy on foreigners
72.↑ Le Monde, January 18, 2014, Obama speech disappoints MEPs who asked hear Snowden
73.↑ (en) The Guardian, June 26, 2014, US to extend privacy protection rights to EU citizens
74.↑ « The NSA has hacked Yahoo and Google and data from millions of users… », Pierre-Alain Depaw, Media-Press, 1St November 2013
75.↑ (en) NSA and GCHQ accused of hacking Google and Yahoo 31 October 2014
76.↑ Smile, the NSA collects your photos for its facial recognition software, Pierre-Alain Depaw, Media-Press, June 2, 2014
77.↑ (in) THe New York Times, May 31, 2014, N.O.S. Collecting Millions of Faces From Web Images
78.↑ (en)  » National Cryptologic Museum – Virtual Tour « on, site of the NSA, April 9, 2009 (consulted the August 26, 2013 ))
79.↑ Jacques Baud, encyclopedia of intelligence and secret services, Lavauzelle, 2002, p. 492
80.↑ Pierre Vandeginste, « the quantum computer: part 3: those who bet on the success », La Recherche, no 398, June 2006, p. 45 (read online)
81.↑ 3 January 2014 The world the NSA seeks to build a machine to decipher universal
82.↑ (en)  » Information Assurance at NSA « ,, site of the NSA, July 30, 2013 (consulted the August 26, 2013 ))
83.↑ Declaration of Richard C. Schaeffer, Jr. Director of Information Assurance at NSA, before the Judiciary Subcommittee of the Senate on terrorism and homeland security, Cybersecurity: Preventing Terrorist Attacks and Protecting Privacy in Cyberspace, November 17, 2009 [read online]
84.↑ (en) A View from the Quarter-Deck at the National Security Agency -Admiral William Studeman, University of California Press
85.↑ (en) James Bamford, Body of Secrets p. 595
86.↑ Pierre Dandumont, « La NSA opens one of its technologies to the world « , Tom’s Hardware, September 9, 2011 (read online)
87.↑ (en)  » Former Deputy Directors « , on, site of the NSA, January 15, 2009 (consulted the August 26, 2013 ))
88.↑ (en) Siobhan Gorman, « « . Second-ranking NSA official forced out of job by director « » , Baltimore Sun May 31, 2006 (online ))

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